Origin And Evolution Of Man Pdf

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Metrics details. Along with his younger colleague Alfred Russel Wallace, Charles Darwin provided the initial theoretical underpinnings of human evolutionary science as it is practiced today.

Human evolution , the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens , a culture-bearing upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa about , years ago. We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini , but there is abundant fossil evidence to indicate that we were preceded for millions of years by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus , Australopithecus , and other species of Homo , and that our species also lived for a time contemporaneously with at least one other member of our genus , H. In addition, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from the modern-day gorilla to the long-extinct Dryopithecus.

Genetics Steps In to Help Tell the Story of Human Origins

Evolution , theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations. The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory. The diversity of the living world is staggering. More than 2 million existing species of organisms have been named and described; many more remain to be discovered—from 10 million to 30 million, according to some estimates. The virtually infinite variations on life are the fruit of the evolutionary process.

Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past , years. Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern human species, Homo sapiens , has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes.

Journal of Human Evolution

This volume addresses the origin of the human genus Homo, a major transition in human evolution and associated with major changes in brain size, locomotion, and culture, but one with many unanswered questions. How many different species of Homo were there, and how were they interrelated? Are stone tools a characteristic of early Homo? What was their function? How does the use of stone tools relate to changes in the dentition and brain size?

Charles Darwin and Human Evolution

Jawbones from extinct hominins in Indonesia, Neanderthal teeth from Israel, and ancient human finger bones unearthed in Saudi Arabia have all at one point spent time in his lab at Australian National University before being returned home. In , he carried with him a particularly precious piece of cargo: a tiny sliver of fossilized bone covered in bubble wrap inside a box. The bone fragment had come from a skull—still stored at the Natural History Museum in London—with a heavy brow ridge and a large face. It looked so primitive that the miner who had discovered it in at a lead mine in the Zambian town of Kabwe, then in the British territory of Rhodesia, first thought it had belonged to a gorilla. In the s, however, museum paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer took another look at the skull and classified it as belonging to the species Homo heidelbergensis , an ancient hominin thought to be a human ancestor.

The latter has been split into two separate entries. It will also maintain a historical and textual approach. Other entries in this encyclopedia cited at the end of the article and the bibliography should be consulted for discussions beyond this point. The issues will be examined under the following headings:.

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The origin of modern humans has probably been the most debated issue in evolutionary biology over the last few decades. Our evolutionary history is written into our genome. The human genome looks the way it does because of all the genetic changes that have affected our ancestors. The exact origin of modern humans has long been a topic of debate.

The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

Metrics details. There is a consensus among evolutionists today that man first appeared in Africa approximately four million years ago. The timeline they give is approximately one million years and to fully understand one million years is still a difficult task.