Does Happiness Influence Developed And Developing Countries Pdf Scholarly Article
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A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index HDI relative to other countries.
- Developing country
- Happiness economics
- Does Development Make You Happy? Subjective Wellbeing And Economic Growth In Developing Countries
- Happiness and Life Satisfaction
This article is published with open access at SpringerLink. Abstract There is enough evidence to be confident that individuals are able and willing to provide a meaningful answer when asked to value on a finite scale their satisfaction with their own lives, a question that psychologists have long and often posed to respondents of large questionnaires.
The economics of happiness or happiness economics is the theoretical, qualitative and quantitative study of happiness and quality of life , including positive and negative affects , well-being ,  life satisfaction and related concepts — typically tying economics more closely than usual with other social sciences , like sociology and psychology , as well as physical health. It typically treats subjective happiness-related measures, as well as more objective quality of life indices, rather than wealth, income or profit, as something to be maximized. The field has grown substantially since the late 20th century, for example by the development of methods, surveys and indices to measure happiness and related concepts,  as well as quality of life. Happiness findings have been described as a challenge to the theory and practice of economics. The subject may be categorized in various ways, depending on specificity, intersection, and cross-classification.
On the economics of happiness: the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness. The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in countries as different as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Bhutan.
The search for happiness is an important individual and national economic goal. In the Benthamite utilitarian tradition, happiness is the sum of all pleasures and pains. People often obtain or perceive their happiness from what they have in comparison with others.
At the macroeconomic level, more happiness may come from a sustained growth in GDP that enables households to enjoy an improved quality of life, with rising income, consumption and employment opportunities. At the microeconomic or individual level, more income may also enable people to live happier and fuller lives relative to those who are poor.
But this accounts for only a small contribution to happiness. Life circumstances, such as marital status, health, having children and the nature of the working environment statistically make a greater contribution to happiness than income. Key words: subjective well-being, economic growth, income, debt, happiness, debt, relationships.
The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in many countries as diverse as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Sweden. All of us want to be happy and lead more fulfilling lives, but not everybody is happy.
In former times, happiness was studied mainly by philosophers and psychologists. In recent years, though, happiness has been a topical subject in Economics too. The Economic Journal states: "Economists from different backgrounds Psychologists are examining happiness through brain signals, personality traits and environmental factors. Philosophers have probed happiness by looking at the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain, and virtuous life qualities.
Some social scientists consider the effects of friendship, family, communities and groups on happiness. It is popularly believed that happiness increases when people consume more goods and services with rising income. Many individuals seek happiness by acquiring wealth, or working long hours to make money, often at the expense of leisure and good social relations. They believe that happiness lies in material possessions, through the satisfaction of material desires. Income is earned primarily through employment.
The more income individuals can earn, the more goods and services they can afford to buy and the more satisfaction they can enjoy. In utilitarian theory, more income is better, as it enables individuals to maximize utility through a greater demand for goods and services. At the national level, the aggregate annual value of final goods and services produced in the country is its GDP, which serves as a basis for measuring economic growth.
More goods being produced entails more demand for labour, more employment and more income generation to buy the goods and services produced. As economic growth increases real per capita income, people can afford to buy more goods and services. This, in turn, may result in enhanced well-being and subjective happiness. It is thus no surprise that certain former and current top policy-makers, such as Nicholas Sarkozy and David Cameron, support the measurement of national well-being or happiness rather than GDP Porter, Economic reasoning would suggest a positive relationship between income and happiness.
Empirical studies suggest that higher income resulting from high rates of economic growth contribute to poverty alleviation and greater life satisfaction in low income countries Layard, Higher income raises the happiness of the poor at a point in time and place. As the study of happiness gains a wider perspective, other factors, such as social capital relationships and human capital education are emerging as key determinants of subjective well-being. Does income contribute to happiness in a developing country?
If increases in income and consumption do not make people significantly happier, at least beyond a certain level, what economic choices and environmental conditions do? This exploratory study examines the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness.
In order to enhance the happiness of members of society, one needs an understanding of 'happiness' and the contributing factors. Happiness is an elusive concept, which is not defined in a definite way in the literature Porter, Classical economists argue that more wealth is just a means of being happy Smith, , and 'to increase the wealth of a state tends also, generally speaking, to increase happiness' Malthus, Veenhoven defines happiness as the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as being favourable.
The traditional economic view is that 'more is better. Ng argues that at the micro level, each of us wants money, not for its own sake, but for what it can bring us in terms of happiness. Economics has traditionally viewed happiness in terms of subjective well-being.
Ng defines happiness as 'welfare', while for Oswald , happiness means hedonistic 'pleasure' or 'satisfaction'. Layard regards happiness as enjoying life and feeling good, and is thus synonymous with subjective well-being SWB.
Individuals are said to have high SWB if they experience high-life satisfaction and frequent pleasant emotions such as joy and affection, and only infrequently experience unpleasant emotions. Easterlin views happiness from a broader perspective: "I use the terms happiness, subjective well-being, satisfaction, utility, welfare interchangeably".
According to the Utilitarian and Benthamian philosophy, the individual's conduct and government policies should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people and minimizing pain, enabling a rightward shift in the social welfare function.
Bentham's 'greatest happiness principle' is universal. In his 'Theory of Moral Sentiments', Smith postulated that leaders should "secure the internal tranquility and happiness" of their fellow-citizens.
Research indicates a link between happiness and income. People with higher incomes have a higher status in society, which intrinsically makes them happy and enables them to enjoy positional goods.
These are exquisite and expensive goods that are scarce in some absolute or socially imposed sense, subject to crowding through extensive use. The marginal significance of a Rand gained in utility to the poor is more than a Rand lost in utility to the rich. Happiness has a positive contagion or externality effect, as individuals with high income can make other people happier just by being happy themselves.
The behavioural school, in particular Daniel Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner for Economics in , treats happiness as a subjective issue that is measurable through surveys. This is made possible by asking respondents, for example, how happy they are on a scale 1 to 10 , at a given moment and over time Layard, Frey and Stutzer argue that, in evaluating happiness in relation to income and other factors, it is sensible in Economics to rely on the judgments of people as they are thought to be the best judges of the overall quality of their own lives.
At any given time, richer people claim to be happier than poorer people. In developing countries, higher income raises the happiness of poor people living below the bread line. In developed and richer countries, higher income does not seem to 'buy' higher happiness, once a threshold level of income has been reached. Although real income per head has increased significantly in developed countries, like America, Japan and Europe, studies using data from the past five decades, have indicated that people there, on average, are currently no happier than in earlier times Layard, This suggests that happiness levels fail to rise significantly as rich countries become even richer.
This seems like a paradox. Easterlin argues that absolute income matters to individual happiness up to a point, but once basic needs have been met, relative income matters more for happiness. People compare their incomes and style of living with those of others in the income distribution.
Raising everyone's income does not raise everyone's happiness because, in comparison with others, income has not improved Easterlin, Individuals seeking more income to increase their happiness are unlikely to be satisfied, as they aspire to getting more and more. As they earn higher income, their aspirations change. They feel dissatisfied with what they have and they may wish to possess more material goods and indulge in conspicuous consumption, possibly by contracting debt.
The lack of satisfaction with what individuals currently have and their need to emulate the habits of celebrities or others, partly because of consumerism, and trying to "keep up with the Joneses" prompt them to buy more. Although many catch the 'luxury fever', this 'affluenza' and status do not necessarily make them permanently happier James, ; Frank, Further, while more income resulting from economic growth can lead to more comfort, increased choices and richer lives, this may also lead to less stimulation and more disparities, possibly contributing to a "joyless society" Scitovsky, ; Jackson, As people buy more on credit, and consume more, they do not save enough and their level of debt increases.
High levels of outstanding debt, other than home mortgaged debt, can reduce their happiness Dutt, This debt would be an added burden in their lives, if credit were taken simply for consumption motives. It is partly against this background that the National Credit Act was introduced in South Africa in June as a way of protecting consumers from accumulating high debt that they cannot afford.
However, debt may not necessarily be an impediment to happiness if it is directed towards investment with a potential for generating higher income. Increased debt, in this instance, could actually enhance happiness when the investment payoffs lead to increased financial security.
Individuals earn an income primarily from supplying their labour services and talents to the market. People with more education are generally more productive and earn more; they tend to be happier than those with less education. Hinks and Gruen found that South Africans with tertiary education are happier than those who have no education.
Research indicates that people with more capabilities and freedom, tend to earn more income and, are happier than those with fewer skills; individuals in democratic societies are happier than those who live under repressive regimes Sen, Living in an environment of economic and social security has a powerful impact on an individual's well-being Inglehart, The quality of the relationships one has at work, in the community and in the family environment has a bearing on individual happiness.
Individuals with better family ties, with children and friendships and a good working environment, are happier than others for whom these qualities are lacking.
Social connectivity keeps individuals less isolated, better supported, more bonded and thus happier Putman, ; Lane, Further, people who have good health and who are more extroverted are happier than others.
Intrinsic religious commitment tends to have a positive effect on life satisfaction as it often promotes virtuosity, spirituality and the values of caring concern for others and mankind Hamilton, Further, married people tend to be happier than those who are single, divorced or widowed Oswald, ; Layard, Powdthavee found that South Africans in civil marriages are significantly happier than people who are single and have never married.
In short, Layard identifies seven factors influencing happiness. Listed in order of 'importance', these are: family relationships, financial situation, work, community and friends, health, personal freedom and values.
Although South Africa is at a medium level of human development ranked rd out of countries , its perceived overall life satisfaction index over the period stands at 4. This is below the average of the same development group, 4. However, according to the World Database of Happiness, South Africa had an average level of happiness or life satisfaction of 5. Life satisfaction is based on a scale of 1 dissatisfied to 10 most satisfied.
The average level of happiness, as measured by the World Value Survey question: "All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? This clearly shows that people in South Africa have been experiencing, on average, a reduced level of life satisfaction in recent years.
Growth and development are the permanent goals of various societies. But, there is a question: How can we access to development? After World War II, the improvements of social and economic situation were followed as a major goal. Therefore, the developed countries find the way of development and innovation in economical development, equality and social justice. According to this viewpoint, development occurs when social and economic development is sustained. In the last decades, sustainable economic development is more attended in most scientific societies. Social, political and economic sciences as well as biosciences are more focused on sustainable development and its effective factors.
As economies get richer, they can afford to question the need for further riches. In a country where people are starving, economic growth remains regarded as a vital objective to overcome hunger and other poverty problems. Traditionally, economists and others measure a nation's progress and prosperity by looking at Gross Domestic Product GDP , that is, the total output of good and services a country produces for its own inhabitants or for sale to other nations. There is a growing tendency, however, for economists to consider another measure, Gross National Happiness. Published every year, the HDI is a score that amalgamates three indicators: lifespan, educational attainment, and adjusted real income. In this paper, Blanchflower and Oswald question the soundness of this measure when the Human Development Report places Australia at third in the world, ahead of all the other English-speaking countries.
However, there are a number of reasons commonly articulated for thinking the relationship should be stronger in less developed countries LDCs. This paper looks at both reasons for expecting the relationship to be stronger in developing countries, and those for a weak link that might still apply in LDCs. Finally, it turns to a limited data set to see what that might tell us. The results suggest that, at least in middle-income countries, there is little strong evidence in favor of a connection between economic growth and SWB. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Ahuvia, A.
Does Development Make You Happy? Subjective Wellbeing And Economic Growth In Developing Countries
How happy are people today? Were people happier in the past? How satisfied with their lives are people in different societies?
Iris Lok, Elizabeth W. Collabra: Psychology 1 January ; 6 1 : 5. Under what conditions does prosocial spending promote happiness? In a series of appropriately powered and pre-registered experiments, the present research revisited the role of impact, social connection, and perceived choice in maximizing the emotional benefits of spending money on others.
Happiness and Life Satisfaction
On the economics of happiness: the influence of income and non-income factors on happiness. The quest for individual happiness and a better life for all is an important economic objective in countries as different as South Africa and France or Zimbabwe and Bhutan. The search for happiness is an important individual and national economic goal. In the Benthamite utilitarian tradition, happiness is the sum of all pleasures and pains. People often obtain or perceive their happiness from what they have in comparison with others.
Rich people are happier than poorer people on average, and richer countries are happier than poorer countries. Between and , the U. And yet surveys failed to show any upsurge in happiness throughout this period of post-war boom. Some scholars rejected the paradox and pointed to countries in which economic growth was accompanied by growing happiness. Other scholars, Easterlin included, came up with further examples of the paradox — countries in which economic growth was accompanied with flat or downward-looking trends for happiness.
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Subjective Wellbeing And Economic Growth In Developing Countries This paper looks at both reasons for expecting the relationship to be stronger in developing consumption and subjective wellbeing', Journal of Macromarketing (Fall). wealth of nations does go with greater happiness' Social Indicators Research
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Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись. Соши лихорадочно прогоняла текст на мониторе в обратном направлений и наконец нашла то, что искала. - Да.
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ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер. Но я слышу какие-то звуки. Далекий голос… - Дэвид. Он почувствовал болезненное жжение в боку.
Смотрите внимательно, - предупредил Смит. - Халохот - профессионал.
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