Structure And Composition Of Atmosphere Pdf
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The atmosphere contains many gases, most in small amounts, including some pollutants and greenhouse gases.
- Structure of the Atmosphere
- Layers of the atmosphere
- Composition and Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere
- Atmosphere, composition and structure
Structure of the Atmosphere
ClearIAS Team has been receiving a lot of support and encouragement from our loving readers for our easy-to-understand articles on Geography. We all know that earth is a unique planet due to the presence of life. The air is one among the necessary conditions for the existence of life on this planet. The air is a mixture of several gases and it encompasses the earth from all sides.
The air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density. They are:. Take a Free Test. ClearIAS provides free IAS online coaching, guidance, strategies, books , online study-materials and mock tests with a vision that no candidate should be left out of UPSC exam competition due to in-accessibility of expensive IAS classroom coaching. Thanks clearias. Thanks for providing material free of cost.
Sir thanks for providing material in sequence this was the only one thing which was not good in your material. Because continuity is very essential.
Plz provide all material in sequence manner. Hi Nikhil, thank you for the feedback and great to know that readers like you value our content so much. We hope you would find this helpful. Sorry — C02 is not the major greenhouse gas.
CO2 is a poor greenhouse gas. CO2 is not causing global warming! Your email address will not be published. What is atmosphere? The atmosphere is a mixture of different gases.
It contains life-giving gases like Oxygen for humans and animals and carbon dioxide for plants. It envelops the earth all round and is held in place by the gravity of the earth. It helps in stopping the ultraviolet rays harmful to the life and maintains the suitable temperature necessary for life. Composition of the atmosphere The atmosphere is made up of different gases, water vapour and dust particles. The composition of the atmosphere is not static and it changes according to the time and place.
Gases of the atmosphere The atmosphere is a mixture of different types of gases. Nitrogen and oxygen are the two main gases in the atmosphere and 99 percentage of the atmosphere is made up of these two gases. Other gases like argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, hydrogen, etc. The portion of the gases changes in the higher layers of the atmosphere in such a way that oxygen will be almost negligible quantity at the heights of km.
Similarly, carbon dioxide and water vapour is found only up to 90 km from the surface of the earth. Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide is meteorologically a very important gas. It is transparent to the incoming solar radiation insolation but opaque to the outgoing terrestrial radiation.
Carbon dioxide is largely responsible for the greenhouse effect. When the volume of other gases remains constant in the atmosphere, the volume of the carbon dioxide has been rising in the past few decades mainly because of the burning of fossil fuels. This rising volume of carbon dioxide is the main reason for global warming. It acts as a filter and absorbs the ultra-violet rays radiating from the sun and prevents them from reaching the surface of the earth.
The amount of ozone gas in the atmosphere is very little and is limited to the ozone layer found in the stratosphere. Water Vapour Gases form of water present in the atmosphere is called water vapour.
It is the source of all kinds of precipitation. The amount of water vapour decreases with altitude. It also decreases from the equator or from the low latitudes towards the poles or towards the high latitudes. Water vapour reaches in the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Evaporation takes place in the oceans, seas, rivers, ponds and lakes while transpiration takes place from the plants, trees and living beings. It thus acts like a blanket allowing the earth neither to become too cold nor too hot.
Water vapour also contributes to the stability and instability in the air. Dust Particles Dust particles are generally found in the lower layers of the atmosphere. These particles are found in the form of sand, smoke-soot, oceanic salt, ash, pollen, etc. Higher concentration of dust particles is found in subtropical and temperate regions due to dry winds in comparison to equatorial and polar regions. These dust particles help in the condensation of water vapour.
During the condensation, water vapour gets condensed in the form of droplets around these dust particles and thus clouds are formed. Structure of the atmosphere The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density.
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Layers of the atmosphere
ClearIAS Team has been receiving a lot of support and encouragement from our loving readers for our easy-to-understand articles on Geography. We all know that earth is a unique planet due to the presence of life. The air is one among the necessary conditions for the existence of life on this planet. The air is a mixture of several gases and it encompasses the earth from all sides. The air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density.
An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation , solar wind and cosmic rays. The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and typically includes the portion above the opaque photosphere. Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location.
The atmosphere has 4 layers: the troposphere that we live in near the surface of the earth; the stratosphere that houses the ozone layer; the mesosphere, a colder and lower density layer with about 0. Why do I care? The structure of the atmosphere dictates the way the atmosphere behaves and controls how weather develops near the surface of the earth. The atmosphere consists of 4 layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Figure A shows the placement of the different layers of the atmosphere and how the temperature changes with height as you go from the ground up to space. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
Stratosphere. Extends from the tropopause to the stratopause (From ~ 45 to 55 km altitude); temperature increases with altitude. Mesosphere. Extends from the stratopause to the mesopause (From ~ 80 to 90 km altitude); temperature decreases with altitude to the mesopause, which is the coldest point in the atmosphere.
Composition and Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere
The remainder, less than 0. The atmosphere can be divided into vertical layers determined by the way temperature changes with altitude. Above the stratosphere are the mesosphere and thermosphere. These two layers include regions of charged atoms and molecules, or ions. The upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere are called the ionosphere, this region is important to radio communications, because radio waves can bounce off the layer and travel great distances.
Doorsteptutor material for UGC is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation - practice your way to success. The air has a special place among all the conditions necessary for life. The air is a mixture of several gases. The air encompasses the earth from all sides. The air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is comprised of layers based on temperature. These layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. A further region at about km above the Earth's surface is called the exosphere. The atmosphere can be divided into layers based on its temperature, as shown in the figure below. These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
Atmosphere, composition and structure
The mix of gases in the atmosphere forms a complex system organized into layers that together support life on Earth. Nitrogen dilutes oxygen and prevents rapid or instantaneous burning at the Earth's surface, as oxygen gas is a necessary reactant of the combustion process. Nitrogen is also needed and used by living things to make proteins, though as nitrogen gas, N 2 , it is unavailable to most living things. Oxygen is used by all living things to make molecules that are essential for life.
Terry J. E-mail: terry. There is a long-standing preconception in ecology that both landmasses and bodies of water constitute habitats for living systems whereas the atmosphere does not; this preconception, however, is now beginning to change. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the ecology of living organisms found in the atmosphere.
2. Brief history of atmospheric studies. 3. Meteorological elements and units of measurement. 4. Composition of atmospheric air. 5. Structure of the atmosphere.
The different layers of the atmosphere
И с успехом его выдержал. Ненависть в его сердце уступила место преданности Будде. Еще через четыре месяца Энсей Танкадо приступил к работе в Отделении криптографии Агентства национальной безопасности США. Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим.
Беккер подошел и громко постучал в дверцу. Тишина. Он тихонько толкнул дверь, и та отворилась. Беккер с трудом сдержал крик ужаса. Меган сидела на унитазе с закатившимися вверх глазами.
- Вчерашняя статистика безукоризненна: вскрыто двести тридцать семь кодов, средняя стоимость - восемьсот семьдесят четыре доллара. Среднее время, потраченное на один шифр, - чуть более шести минут. Потребление энергии на среднем уровне. Последний шифр, введенный в ТРАНСТЕКСТ… - Она замолчала.
Она почувствовала, как по спине у нее пробежал холодок. Лицо коммандера выражало торжественную серьезность. Видимо, в его действиях было нечто такое, что ей знать не полагалось. Сьюзан опустилась на стул.
ГЛАВА 48 - Что? - воскликнула Мидж, не веря своим ушам. - Стратмор говорит, что у нас неверные данные. Бринкерхофф кивнул и положил трубку.
Стратмор сразу заметил изумление, мелькнувшее в ее глазах, и взволнованно изложил свой план: - Если бы я получил ключ, то смог бы взломать наш экземпляр Цифровой крепости и внести нужные изменения… - Черный ход, - сказала Сьюзан, мгновенно забыв о том, что Стратмор ей лгал. Она все поняла. - Вроде Попрыгунчика.
Все десять присутствовавших при этом человек в напряженном ожидании молчали, когда вдруг заработавший принтер выдал им открытый текст: шифр был взломан. ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрыл ключ, состоявший из шестидесяти четырех знаков, за десять с небольшим минут, в два миллиона раз быстрее, чем если бы для этого использовался второй по мощности компьютер АНБ. Тогда бы время, необходимое для дешифровки, составило двадцать лет.