Parts Of Brain And Function Pdf
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The brain is a remarkably complex organ comprised of billions of interconnected neurons and glia. It is a bilateral, or two-sided, structure that can be separated into distinct lobes.
The cerebrum or telencephalon is the largest part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres , as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus , basal ganglia , and olfactory bulb. In the human brain , the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system.
The cerebrum develops prenatally from the forebrain prosencephalon. In mammals, the dorsal telencephalon, or pallium , develops into the cerebral cortex , and the ventral telencephalon, or subpallium , becomes the basal ganglia.
The cerebrum is also divided into approximately symmetric left and right cerebral hemispheres. With the assistance of the cerebellum , the cerebrum controls all voluntary actions in the human body.
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Depending upon the position of the animal it lies either in front or on top of the brainstem. In humans, the cerebrum is the largest and best-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum is made up of the two cerebral hemispheres and their cortices the outer layers of grey matter , and the underlying regions of white matter.
The cerebrum consists of two C-shaped cerebral hemispheres, separated from each other by a deep fissure called the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of grey matter of the cerebrum, is found only in mammals. In larger mammals, including humans, the surface of the cerebral cortex folds to create gyri ridges and sulci furrows which increase the surface area.
The cerebral cortex is generally classified into four lobes : the frontal , parietal , occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes are classified based on their overlying neurocranial bones. The cerebrum is divided by the medial longitudinal fissure into two cerebral hemispheres , the right and the left. The cerebrum is contralaterally organized , i. The lateralization of brain function looks at the known and possible differences between the two.
In the developing vertebrate embryo , the neural tube is subdivided into four unseparated sections which then develop further into distinct regions of the central nervous system; these are the prosencephalon forebrain , the mesencephalon midbrain the rhombencephalon hindbrain and the spinal cord.
The dorsal telencephalon gives rise to the pallium cerebral cortex in mammals and reptiles and the ventral telencephalon generates the basal ganglia. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus , including the optic vesicles future retina.
Birds and fish have a dorsal telencephalon, like all vertebrates, but it is generally unlayered and therefore not considered a cerebral cortex. Only a layered cytoarchitecture can be considered a cortex. Note : As the cerebrum is a gross division with many subdivisions and sub-regions, it is important to state that this section lists the functions that the cerebrum as a whole serves.
See main articles on cerebral cortex and basal ganglia for more information. The cerebrum is a major part of the brain, controlling emotions, hearing, vision, personality and much more. It controls all precision of voluntary actions.
Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse on the lower motor neurons , which innervate the muscles. Damage to motor areas by chance of cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease. This kind of damage results in loss of muscular power and precision rather than total paralysis.
It functions as the center of sensory perception, memory, thoughts and judgement; the cerebrum also functions as the center of voluntary motor activities. The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive and process visual , auditory , somatosensory , gustatory , and olfactory information. Together with association cortical areas, these brain regions synthesize sensory information into our perceptions of the world.
The olfactory bulb , responsible for the sense of smell, takes up a large area of the cerebrum in most vertebrates. However, in humans, this part of the brain is much smaller and lies underneath the frontal lobe. The olfactory sensory system is unique since the neurons in the olfactory bulb send their axons directly to the olfactory cortex , rather than to the thalamus first.
Damage to the olfactory bulb results in a loss of olfaction the sense of smell. Speech and language are mainly attributed to the parts of the cerebral cortex. Motor portions of language are attributed to Broca's area within the frontal lobe.
Speech comprehension is attributed to Wernicke's area , at the temporal-parietal lobe junction. These two regions are interconnected by a large white matter tract, the arcuate fasciculus. Damage to the Broca's area results in expressive aphasia non-fluent aphasia while damage to Wernicke's area results in receptive aphasia also called fluent aphasia.
Explicit or declarative factual memory formation is attributed to the hippocampus and associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. This association was originally described after a patient known as HM had both his left and right hippocampus surgically removed to treat chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.
After surgery, HM had anterograde amnesia , or the inability to form new memories. Short-term or working memory involves association areas of the cortex, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , as well as the hippocampus.
In the most primitive vertebrates, the hagfishes and lampreys , the cerebrum is a relatively simple structure receiving nerve impulses from the olfactory bulb.
In cartilaginous and lobe-finned fishes and also in amphibians , a more complex structure is present, with the cerebrum being divided into three distinct regions. The lowermost or ventral region forms the basal nuclei , and contains fibres connecting the rest of the cerebrum to the thalamus. Above this, and forming the lateral part of the cerebrum, is the paleopallium , while the uppermost or dorsal part is referred to as the archipallium.
The cerebrum remains largely devoted to olfactory sensation in these animals, in contrast to its much wider range of functions in amniotes. In ray-finned fishes the structure is somewhat different. The inner surfaces of the lateral and ventral regions of the cerebrum bulge up into the ventricles ; these include both the basal nuclei and the various parts of the pallium and may be complex in structure, especially in teleosts. The dorsal surface of the cerebrum is membranous, and does not contain any nervous tissue.
In the amniotes, the cerebrum becomes increasingly large and complex. In reptiles , the paleopallium is much larger than in amphibians and its growth has pushed the basal nuclei into the central regions of the cerebrum.
As in the lower vertebrates, the grey matter is generally located beneath the white matter , but in some reptiles, it spreads out to the surface to form a primitive cortex, especially in the anterior part of the brain.
In mammals , this development proceeds further, so that the cortex covers almost the whole of the cerebral hemispheres, especially in more developed species, such as the primates. The paleopallium is pushed to the ventral surface of the brain, where it becomes the olfactory lobes, while the archipallium becomes rolled over at the medial dorsal edge to form the hippocampus.
In placental mammals , a corpus callosum also develops, further connecting the two hemispheres. The complex convolutions of the cerebral surface see gyrus , gyrification are also found only in higher mammals. The cerebra of birds are similarly enlarged to those of mammals, by comparison with reptiles. The increased size of bird brains was classically attributed to enlarged basal ganglia , with the other areas remaining primitive, but this view has been largely abandoned.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex. Frontal lobe. Temporal lobe. Parietal lobe. Occipital lobe. The lobes of the cerebral cortex include the frontal blue , temporal green , occipital red , and parietal yellow lobes. The cerebellum unlabeled is not part of the telencephalon.
Main article: Olfaction. Main article: Language. Main article: Memory. This article uses anatomical terminology. A Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology. Nelson Thornes. Retrieved 27 January Principles of Neuroanatomy. NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 28 January Sunderland, Mass. Appleton and Lange: McGraw-Hill. The Vertebrate Body. Brink B Biol. Nervous system. Sensory nerve Motor nerve Cranial nerve Spinal nerve. Sympathetic Parasympathetic Enteric. Anatomy of the cerebral cortex of the human brain.
Superior frontal gyrus 4 6 8 Middle frontal gyrus 9 10 46 Inferior frontal gyrus : 11 47 - Pars orbitalis Broca's area 44 - Pars opercularis 45 - Pars triangularis Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus. Precentral gyrus Precentral sulcus. Paracentral lobule 4 Paracentral sulcus. Primary motor cortex 4 Premotor cortex 6 Supplementary motor area 6 Supplementary eye field 6 Frontal eye fields 8.
Superior parietal lobule 5 7 Inferior parietal lobule 40 - Supramarginal gyrus 39 - Angular gyrus Parietal operculum 43 Intraparietal sulcus. Paracentral lobule 1 2 3 5 Precuneus 7 Marginal sulcus. Occipital pole of cerebrum Lateral occipital gyrus 18 19 Lunate sulcus Transverse occipital sulcus.
Visual cortex 17 Cuneus Lingual gyrus Calcarine sulcus.
The Lobes of the Brain and Their Functions
It also integrates sensory impulses and information to form perceptions, thoughts, and memories. The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: The cerebrum , with its cerebral cortex, gives us conscious control of our actions. The diencephalon mediates sensations, manages emotions, and commands whole internal systems. The cerebellum adjusts body movements, speech coordination, and balance, while the brain stem relays signals from the spinal cord and directs basic internal functions and reflexes.
The Parietal lobes are responsible for Spatial functions. • The left Parietal lobe is responsible for spatial language (on, over, on top of, before). • The right Parietal.
Lateralized Brain Functions
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. It plays a role in just about every major body system. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. This article gives a brief overview of the central nervous system CNS. We will look at the types of cells involved, different regions within the brain, spinal circuitry, and how the CNS can be affected by disease and injury. Here are some key points about the central nervous system. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
Part of the Neuromethods book series NM, volume
The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory.
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