Negative Experiences On Facebook And Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults Pdf
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- Social Media and Mental Health
- Negative Social Comparison on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms: Rumination as a Mechanism
- Social Media and Mental Health: Benefits, Risks, and Opportunities for Research and Practice
Social Media and Mental Health
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship of Social Networking Site SNS problematic usage with personality characteristics and depressive symptomatology. A sample of young adults in Greece varying from 18 to 34 years of age completed four questionnaires on personality characteristics, depressive symptomatology, problematic SNS usage and socio-demographic factors. Problematic SNS usage is significantly and positively related to depression and Neuroticism, while negatively associated with Agreeableness.
However, problematic use of SNS is not related to Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience and Extraversion, although the latter was found to be negatively associated with depression.
In contrast to previous research findings, age and gender are not found to be related to either problematic SNS usage or depressive symptomatology. However, place of residence is associated with Neuroticism and Problematic Use, with participants from rural areas exhibiting higher scores than participants from urban areas. Personality, depressive symptomatology and socio-demographic factors relate to the way Social Networking Sites are being used.
Implications are discussed. Keywords: depression; Internet; personality characteristics; problematic use; social networking sites; young adults doi: According to Alexa. Greece is also ranked in the 42 nd place worldwide. There are more than 4 million Facebook users and the largest user age group is , followed by users in the age of Socialbakers, Although international literature on the subject is constantly growing, little research has been conducted in Greece regarding the use of these sites, as well as whether they possess addictive qualities.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of the Social Networking Site SNS problematic usage with personality characteristics and depressive symptomatology in a sample of Greek young adults. Recent studies i. Bahk, Sheil, Rohm Jr. Spending an excessive amount of time i. It incorporates symptoms such as change of mood, preoccupation with SNS usage, gradual increase in use, withdrawal symptoms, interpersonal and psychological problems and possibility of relapse after a period of abstinence Griffiths, There are various studies i.
Additionally, socio-demographic factors such as age, gender and place of residence are found to influence SNS usage as well. According to Kuss and Griffiths , research has also suggested gender differences in SNS usage patterns, with males being drawn to online games and females being attracted to online communication.
Although Wolfradt and Doll suggested that gender is a major factor to consider when researching Internet use or use of Social Networking Sites, most of the previous research findings are ambiguous, showing either men or women to exhibit higher problematic SNS usage i.
When examining the concepts of problematic SNS usage, personality and depression, one cannot overlook the significant influence of cultural factors, as they are important not only among eastern and western societies but also for European countries.
Despite the indisputable similarities, there are important and fundamental differences in social, political, financial, historical, ethnic and cultural backgrounds among the northern, central and southern countries forming the European Union and especially Greece which seems to be in the midpoint between east and west. While Facebook users from Italy preferred groups, games and applications, Greek users found status updates as unimportant. Furthermore, users from France visited Facebook less frequently, in contrast to UK users that spend more time online than any of the other groups.
Interestingly, Greek users had the most similarities with US users than the Facebook users from the other European countries. Vasalou et al. Differences on depression, personality characteristics and problematic SNS usage may well be based on underlying sociological and cultural particularities of Greek users, therefore an investigation of localized problematic SNS usage will contribute to enhancing our understanding of the phenomenon.
Given the study objectives, as well as the literature review, the following research hypotheses are set: 1. There is a significant positive relationship between problematic SNS usage and depressive symptomatology.
There are significant relations between problematic SNS usage and personality characteristics: a positive correlations with Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, b negative correlations with Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. There are significant differences among individuals with low, average and high daily SNS usage with regards to depression, personality characteristics and problematic SNS usage. There are significant differences in gender, age and place of residence regarding problematic SNS usage, depressive symptomatology and personality characteristics.
Personality dimensions, depressive symptomatology, place of residence and SNS habits length of membership, number of Friends, daily usage , collectively considered, constitute good predictors of problematic SNS usage.
Method Subjects and Procedure The research was conducted in the extended area of Thessaly, central Greece. Thessaly is the 3 rd largest in population administrative region of Greece with 4 prefectures, 4 large cities and hundreds of towns and villages. The subjects were randomly selected and approached by the two researchers in public places e. University campus, coffee shops and internet cafes. These public places were chosen because of their accessibility and the fact that the majority of their patrons are young adults.
After verifying that their age was between years and that they used one or more Social Networking Sites, subjects were asked to participate voluntarily and complete anonymously, in the presence of the researcher, a booklet with written questionnaires on the use of Facebook and Social Networking Sites that takes about 20 minutes to answer.
The vast majority of the subjects accepted to complete the booklet, as most of them were familiar with answering questionnaires during their academic studies. Thirteen subjects 7. Fifty-one percent were undergraduate students, whereas the rest of the participants had either finished their degree The vast majority Measures A short demographic survey was employed to provide information on the characteristics of the participants, as well as their SNS habits. Additionally, three questionnaires were administered that were translated, adapted into Greek and revised through back-translations by a team of four bilingual professionals: two psychologists and two specialists in English and Greek language.
It is a item questionnaire answered on a 5-point Likert scale with scores ranging from 29 to e. According to the factorial structure, GPIUS scale contains seven factors: mood alteration, perceived social benefits, negative outcomes, compulsive use, excessive time online, withdrawal, and social control.
Reliability analyses indicated high internal consistencies, with alpha coefficients ranging from. The questionnaire was created by Pichot et al. It consists of 52 items that describe a variety of depressive symptoms: affective, cognitive and somatic e.
High scores relate to more severe levels of depression. The QD2 has a a good homogeneity, b a good reliability split-half method; Spearman-Brown formula , ranging from.
In the NEO-FFI there is a total of 60 items that ask the respondents to rank their agreement with the statement on a 5-point Likert scale e. People scoring high on a scale are considered to have a significant degree of that trait. Respective internal consistency alphas of.
Results In order to verify the hypotheses of this study, a variety of statistical analyses were conducted, including factor analysis, correlations, t-test, one-way ANOVA and multiple regressions. Since the validity of the measures used in the present research has not been studied in a Greek population, it was deemed necessary to study their factorial structure based on our sample. Principle-components factor analyses, using Varimax rotations, were conducted to all instruments.
The factor labels proposed by Caplan suited the extracted factors and were retained. The reliability coefficients, as found in the present study, were. QD2 showed the three primary factors that were found in the study of Pichot et al. Regarding problematic SNS usage and personality characteristics, our expectations were partially confirmed. The cutoff scores were indicated by previous research studies e. Harbaugh, Regression analysis yielded an overall multiple correlation of.
Discussion Our hypothesis was confirmed, indicating that the higher the problematic SNS usage, the higher the depressive symptomatology. This finding is also in accordance with the existing literature i. With regards to personality traits, participants higher in Neuroticism spent significantly more time in Social Networking Sites, had higher levels in problematic SNS usage and exhibited more depressive symptoms.
On the other hand, individuals high on the trait of Agreeableness were found to have lower problematic SNS usage. In the same sense, the comparison between individuals with lower, average and higher daily SNS usage scores indicated that Neuroticism is an important discriminating factor. Consequently, a poor social life could lead to misuse of Internet Caplan, and Social Networking Sites as a means for compensating for a low competence in interpersonal domain.
The best predictor of problematic SNS usage, as expected, was the daily average SNS usage , which is significantly related to both Neuroticism and Agreeableness. From the five personality variables, only Neuroticism and to a lesser extent Agreeableness was found to be significant predictors.
Another significant finding concerns the importance of place of residence in predicting problematic SNS usage. Participants living in rural areas up to 1. That is the case of small villages in Greece, as one would have to admit that they do not usually offer young people the variety in opportunities for socializing, recreation and entertainment that larger cities do. Consequently, they could influence the expression of personality characteristics and result in seemingly higher levels of Neuroticism.
Nevertheless, these tentative explanations remain to be verified in future research studies. However, it is worthwhile to mention the relatively few significant findings in relation to the other three remaining personality variables.
Individuals low in the trait of Extraversion and Conscientiousness, as well as people with higher levels of Openness to Experience, were expected to exhibit higher levels in problematic SNS usage, but that was not confirmed in this study. Similarly, people with higher levels of Openness to Experience are characterised by curiosity and novelty-seeking, thus more likely to use Social Networking Sites Ross et al. Our results, however, support the conclusions of Hamburger and Ben-Artzi that personality variables can only partially predict the way Internet is used.
Concerning gender, problematic SNS usage and depression no significant findings were unearthed, even though women exhibited significantly higher scores in the trait of Neuroticism than men. Recent evidence indicates that the gender gap in Internet usage is rapidly diminishing Weiser, and that could explain the lack of difference in problematic SNS usage in this sample.
In contrast to previous findings, another factor unrelated to the research variables, was age. Even though young adults have been shown to be at high risk for behavioural addictions Grant et al. The number of participants and the small age range are possibly responsible for these results. A comparison between young adults, adolescents and older adults could yield different findings.
It cannot be claimed that specific personality characteristics and high levels of depressive symptomatology constitute antecedents of problematic SNS usage. Alternative interpretations are also possible; for example, depressive symptomatology may be secondary to problematic SNS usage.
Furthermore, another limitation is that the convenience sample used in this study is relatively small and not representative of the general population of young adults in Greece. Having a larger pool of participant backgrounds by collecting data from more diverse settings, could improve the generalizability of our conclusions.
Consequently, the results should be interpreted with caution, even though Greece is a small country where we do not usually expect significant differences regarding population composition within cities or within villages in different administrative regions EL.
However, regardless of the above limitations, the value of this preliminary study that is part of a larger project still in progress is not greatly diminished. The results regarding the existence of problematic SNS usage in young adults living in small villages and rural areas, if reconfirmed by future studies, could have important implications in developing online counselling services.
Seeking social support online is not a novelty; however, little research is being focused on whether Social Networking Sites can be a means of providing social support e. Whether assistance and support could be obtained by anonymous audiences such as bloggers Baker, , or friends and acquaintances on Facebook and other Social Networking Sites should be the focus of future research studies.
Negative Social Comparison on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms: Rumination as a Mechanism
Caroline Miller. Is using social media making our kids unhappy? Evidence is mounting that there is a link between social media and depression. In several recent studies, teenage and young adult users who spend the most time on Instagram, Facebook and other platforms were shown to have a substantially from 13 to 66 percent higher rate of reported depression than those who spent the least time. Does that mean that Instagram and Facebook are actually causing depression?
Social media has become a prominent fixture in the lives of many individuals facing the challenges of mental illness. Social media refers broadly to web and mobile platforms that allow individuals to connect with others within a virtual network such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, or LinkedIn , where they can share, co-create, or exchange various forms of digital content, including information, messages, photos, or videos Ahmed et al. Other exploratory studies have found that many of these individuals with mental illness appear to turn to social media to share their personal experiences, seek information about their mental health and treatment options, and give and receive support from others facing similar mental health challenges Bucci et al. Across the USA and globally, very few people living with mental illness have access to adequate mental health services Patel et al. The wide reach and near ubiquitous use of social media platforms may afford novel opportunities to address these shortfalls in existing mental health care, by enhancing the quality, availability, and reach of services. Recent studies have explored patterns of social media use, impact of social media use on mental health and wellbeing, and the potential to leverage the popularity and interactive features of social media to enhance the delivery of interventions.
Negative Facebook experi- ences were associated with depressive symptoms. Ex- periences of bullying or meanness were uniquely linked to depressive symp- toms; having as few as one to three negative lifetime experiences was associated with depressive symptoms.
Social Media and Mental Health: Benefits, Risks, and Opportunities for Research and Practice
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At this time of social distancing and isolation, social media can be an invaluable tool for keeping you in touch with friends, loved ones, and the wider world. But be mindful of how it makes you feel. If spending time on social media exacerbates your stress, anxiety, and uncertainty, take steps to limit your engagement. And always check reputable news sources before believing—or forwarding—any rumors about COVID that may cause panic.
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Несмотря на все предпринятые в конце 1970-х годов усилия министерства обороны сохранить Интернет для себя, этот инструмент оказался настолько соблазнительным, что не мог не привлечь к себе внимания всего общества. Со временем им заинтересовались университеты, а вскоре после этого появились и коммерческие серверы. Шлюзы открылись - в Интернет хлынула публика. К началу 1990-х годов некогда тщательно охраняемый правительством Интернет превратился в перенаселенное пространство, заполненное общедоступными почтовыми серверами и порнографическими сайтами. Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной.