Media Theories And Approaches A Global Perspective Pdf

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The study of global communication is an interdisciplinary field focusing on global communication , or the ways that people connect, share, relate and mobilize across geographic, political, economic, social and cultural divides. Global communication implies a transfer of knowledge and ideas from centers of power to peripheries and the imposition of a new intercultural hegemony by means of the " soft power " of global news and entertainment.

This unique textbook is a manageable introduction to all the theories and approaches that make up media studies, giving students an informed, balanced and global view of media today.

ISBN 13: 9780230551626

Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society. Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies.

This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. For example, following the radio broadcast of War of the Worlds in which was a fictional news report of an alien invasion , some people panicked and believed the story to be true.

Conducted in , the study attempted to gauge the effects of political campaigns on voter choice. Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide. The study thus discredited the direct effects model and influenced a host of other media theories Hanson, These theories do not necessarily give an all-encompassing picture of media effects but rather work to illuminate a particular aspect of media influence.

During the early s, English professor Marshall McLuhan wrote two books that had an enormous effect on the history of media studies. Published in and , respectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture.

His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life. Although s-era utopians received these statements positively, social realists found them cause for scorn. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years.

His supporters point to the hopes and achievements of digital technology and the utopian state that such innovations promise. The current critique of McLuhan, however, is a bit more revealing of the state of modern media studies.

Despite his lack of scholarly diligence, McLuhan had a great deal of influence on media studies. Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars. His work brought the idea of media effects into the public arena and created a new way for the public to consider the influence of media on culture Stille, Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on.

This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public Hanson. When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films.

For example, the agenda-setting theory explains such phenomena as the rise of public opinion against smoking.

Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been prominent in the news. Figure 2. Media scholars who specialize in agenda-setting research study the salience, or relative importance, of an issue and then attempt to understand what causes it to be important. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation.

Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends.

Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media.

In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs.

Uses and gratifications theories of media are often applied to contemporary media issues. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. Researchers employed the uses and gratifications theory in this case to reveal a nuanced set of circumstances surrounding violent media consumption, as individuals with aggressive tendencies were drawn to violent media Papacharissi, Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism , states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction.

This means the way you act toward someone or something is based on the meaning you have for a person or thing. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. Symbols can be constructed from just about anything, including material goods, education, or even the way people talk.

Consequentially, these symbols are instrumental in the development of the self. This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. Advertisers work to give certain products a shared cultural meaning to make them desirable.

For example, when you see someone driving a BMW, what do you think about that person? You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. Ownership of luxury automobiles signifies membership in a certain socioeconomic class. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity.

Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. National and state flags, religious images, and celebrities gain shared symbolic meanings through their representation in the media. The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions.

As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion.

For example, prior to and during World War II, many Germans opposed Adolf Hitler and his policies; however, they kept their opposition silent out of fear of isolation and stigma. Because the media is one of the most important gauges of public opinion, this theory is often used to explain the interaction between media and public opinion.

According to the spiral of silence theory, if the media propagates a particular opinion, then that opinion will effectively silence opposing opinions through an illusion of consensus. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media Papacharissi.

The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show.

The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues.

This style of debate has become a template for handling disagreement to those who consistently watch this type of program. Media logic affects institutions as well as individuals. The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium.

Under this theory, someone who watches a great deal of television may form a picture of reality that does not correspond to actual life. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives.

Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is. Cultivation analysis projects involve a number of different areas for research, such as the differences in perception between heavy and light users of media. To apply this theory, the media content that an individual normally watches must be analyzed for various types of messages.

Media theories have a variety of uses and applications. Research one of the following topics and its effect on culture. Examine the topic using at least two of the approaches discussed in this section.

Hanson, Ralph. Jansson-Boyd, Catherine. Papacharissi, Zizi. Stille, Alexander. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Chapter 2: Media Effects.

Search for:. Explain the uses of various media effects theories. Uses and Gratifications Theory Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media.

Symbolic Interactionism Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism , states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. Spiral of Silence The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions.

Media Logic The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Cultivation Analysis The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium.

Key Takeaways The now largely discredited direct effects model of media studies assumes that media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages.

Credible media theories generally do not give as much power to the media, such as the agenda-setting theory, or give a more active role to the media consumer, such as the uses and gratifications theory.

Exercises Media theories have a variety of uses and applications. Identify how each of these theories can be used today? Do you think these theories are still relevant for modern mass media? Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.

Media Theories and Approaches: A Global Perspective

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Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society. Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages.

Media theories and approaches a global perspective pdf editor

Satisfyingly global and historical in approach, its stimulating, comparative perspective will be greatly welcomed by teachers and students alike. Finally, it's available! This volume will set the standard for everyone else thanks to its comprehensive coverage, clear exposition, and sincere internationalism. Students and teachers are presented with a thorough introduction to the various media forms and a compelling education in the historically changing evolution of media in the Americas, Europe, East and South Asia and Australasia. He is an expert in audience research and conducted Australia's first major Internet diffusion and adoption study.

Media Theories and Approaches

Global Media, Culture, and Identity: Theory, Cases, and Approaches

Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society. Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. For example, following the radio broadcast of War of the Worlds in which was a fictional news report of an alien invasion , some people panicked and believed the story to be true.

Flyer Sample chapter. Recommend to library. Paperback - Hardcover - Ebook - This unique textbook is a manageable introduction to all the theories and approaches that make up media studies, giving students an informed, balanced and global view of media today.

A Global Perspective Weerakkody, Vishanth Structured account of approaches on interoperability D v In Proceedings of the 1st international Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic The origins of individual media-system dependency: A sociological framework. Adobe to make PDF an open standard. Central and Eastern European media change in a global perspective pp. PDF to pose questions about journalism at the "global" level, given the increasing transnational quality of the practice. Recommend to library. Free Shipping. This unique textbook is a manageable introduction to all the theories and approaches that make up media studies, giving students an informed, balanced and global view of media today.


Request PDF | On Jan 1, , Mark Balnaves and others published Media Theories and Approaches: A Global Perspective | Find, read and cite all the research.


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1 Comments

  1. Christopher C. 30.01.2021 at 22:18

    Cultivation Theory is a sociological and communications framework; it suggests that people who are regularly exposed to media over long periods of time are more likely to perceive the world's social realities as they are presented by the media they consume, which in turn affects their attitudes and behaviours.