List Of Vitamins And Their Benefits Pdf
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Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly.
- Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
- Micronutrients: Types, Functions, Benefits and More
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- Listing of vitamins
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Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions.
Meanwhile, minerals play an important role in growth, bone health, fluid balance and several other processes. This article provides a detailed overview of micronutrients, their functions and implications of excess consumption or deficiency. Your body needs smaller amounts of micronutrients relative to macronutrients. Humans must obtain micronutrients from food since your body cannot produce vitamins and minerals — for the most part.
Vitamins are organic compounds made by plants and animals which can be broken down by heat, acid or air. On the other hand, minerals are inorganic, exist in soil or water and cannot be broken down. When you eat, you consume the vitamins that plants and animals created or the minerals they absorbed. An adequate intake of all micronutrients is necessary for optimal health, as each vitamin and mineral has a specific role in your body.
Vitamins and minerals are vital for growth, immune function, brain development and many other important functions 1 , 2 , 3. Depending on their function, certain micronutrients also play a role in preventing and fighting disease 4 , 5 , 6. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals can be divided into four categories: water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals and trace minerals.
Regardless of type, vitamins and minerals are absorbed in similar ways in your body and interact in many processes. Most vitamins dissolve in water and are therefore known as water-soluble. While each water-soluble vitamin has a unique role, their functions are related. For example, most B vitamins act as coenzymes that help trigger important chemical reactions.
A lot of these reactions are necessary for energy production. As you can see, water-soluble vitamins play an important role in producing energy but also have several other functions. After consumption, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in your liver and fatty tissues for future use. Sources and recommended intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 :. Macrominerals are needed in larger amounts than trace minerals in order to perform their specific roles in your body.
Sources and recommended intakes of the macrominerals are 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 :. Trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts than macrominerals but still enable important functions in your body. Sources and recommended intakes of trace minerals are 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 :.
Micronutrients can be divided into four groups — water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals and trace minerals. The functions, food sources and recommended intakes of each vitamin and mineral vary. Consuming an adequate amount of the different vitamins and minerals is key to optimal health and may even help fight disease. This is because micronutrients are part of nearly every process in your body.
Moreover, certain vitamins and minerals can act as antioxidants. For example, research has linked an adequate dietary intake of vitamins A and C with a lower risk of some types of cancer 4 , 5.
Research has linked low blood levels of selenium to a higher risk of heart disease. Additionally, a review of 22 studies noticed that adequate calcium intake decreases the risk of death from heart disease and all other causes These studies suggest that consuming enough of all micronutrients — especially those with antioxidant properties — provides ample health benefits. Micronutrients are part of nearly every process in your body. Some even act as antioxidants. Due to their important role in health, they may protect against diseases.
Most healthy adults can get an adequate amount of micronutrients from a balanced diet, but there are some common nutrient deficiencies that affect certain populations. The signs, symptoms and long-term effects of these deficiencies depend on each nutrient but can be detrimental to the proper functioning of your body and optimal health.
They are most likely to occur with large doses of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K since these nutrients can be stored in your liver and fatty tissues. They cannot be excreted from your body like water-soluble vitamins. A micronutrient toxicity usually develops from supplementing with excess amounts — rarely from food sources.
Signs and symptoms of toxicity vary depending on the nutrient. One study examined over 18, people with a high risk of lung cancer due to past smoking or asbestos exposure. The intervention group received two types of vitamin A — 30 mg of beta-carotene and 25, IU of retinyl palmitate a day The safest and most effective way to get adequate vitamin and mineral intake appears to be from food sources 51 , However, people at risk of specific nutrient deficiencies may benefit from taking supplements under the supervision of a doctor.
Since your body requires micronutrients in specific amounts, deficiencies and surpluses of any one nutrient may lead to negative issues. The term micronutrients refers to vitamins and minerals, which can be divided into macrominerals, trace minerals and water- and fat-soluble vitamins.
Vitamins are needed for energy production, immune function , blood clotting and other functions while minerals benefit growth, bone health, fluid balance and other processes.
To get an adequate amount of micronutrients, aim for a balanced diet containing a variety of foods. A diet lacking in nutrients may cause a variety of unpleasant symptoms. Here are the 8 most common signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies…. Here are eight symptoms that you may have a vitamin d deficiency. This is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. Folate is a B vitamin. It helps make DNA and produce red blood cells. A folate deficiency can lead to complications, especially in pregnant women.
Hypervitaminosis A, or vitamin A toxicity, occurs when you have too much vitamin A in your body. This condition may be acute or chronic.
If you're not getting enough iron, you may develop iron-deficiency anemia. Here are 10 signs and symptoms that you're deficient in iron. Vitamin B12 is an important water-soluble vitamin, and deficiency is common. Here are 9 signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. This article examines the benefits of B-complex vitamins, as well as dosage and…. Learn about the symptoms of zinc deficiency and how to treat it. Definition Types and Functions Benefits Deficiencies and Toxicities Bottom Line Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs.
Share on Pinterest. What Are Micronutrients? Types and Functions of Micronutrients. Health Benefits of Micronutrients. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities. The Bottom Line. Read this next. Folate Deficiency. Medically reviewed by Elaine K. Luo, M. Hypervitaminosis A. Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, Ph. Zinc Deficiency. Medically reviewed by Debra Sullivan, Ph.
Micronutrients: Types, Functions, Benefits and More
A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone.
The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.
Listing of vitamins
The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient.
Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly.
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. They are present in foods containing fats. The body absorbs these vitamins as it does dietary fats.