Audio Video Systems Principles Practices And Troubleshooting Pdf
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PAS published its first Information Report in To celebrate this history, each month we're presenting a new report from the archives. Download original report pdf. The great part of the planner's story is in the philosophy of long range planning. How do the people get that story? It is a complicated thing, difficult to explain. It isn't news as much as it is advertising or just plain communication. Certainly planning frequently involves matters which a journalist would call news.
But news to the journalist involves something both new and concrete. Ideas must be given form. The planner cannot deliver this type of news day after day, year after year. The journalist is reluctant, even opposed, to writing frequent feature stories on the lengthy research necessary prior to the compilation of a comprehensive plan, and yet the planner must keep his name, his goals, his ideas and his activities before the public during this period.
Like the established movie star, he needs publicity between films to maintain his box office draw. At the risk of trotting out a paradox, I hasten to add that he sells himself by selling his plans; or perhaps more accurately by selling his planning — bit by bit, stage by stage. What are the tools available to the planner in achieving this goal? None are new, and yet a list of them is longer than one would expect.
The press media can be tapped in three ways. News stories can be expected when plans are finalized or some concrete action is taken. Feature stories on the problems of planning, its basic goals and philosophy, or on the planners themselves, may come as an occasional publicity bonus.
A lively meeting with the planning board may well result in publicity. Radio and television can provide excellent outlets, particularly on panel-type public affairs programs. Brochures on specific projects, including the comprehensive plan itself, and a periodic newsletter published by the planning agency and dealing with its progress, problems and goals, can reach a selective audience.
The primary tool, however, and the most effective as far as the individual citizen is concerned, remains the public appearance. A personal account at close range will never be replaced by any other method of conveying ideas, particularly when the audience must be convinced as well as informed.
Fortunately, many communities seem to consider the planning agency to be a speakers' bureau. On Monday evening the planner may be called upon to speak before a session of the city council, and Tuesday at noon he is the key speaker at a civic club luncheon. And so it goes all week long. In these talks he is involved in communicating with groups in two broad types of situations. In the first case, he talks before a group only once to discuss an urgent community problem, such as a zoning change, an urban renewal project, or the selection of a site for an expressway interchange.
The planning director must often make this type of presentation to his own planning commission, which, although perhaps much more informal than the general audience, can be quite large, particularly in the newer metropolitan agencies.
In the second situation, the planner is presenting general information on city planning to groups such as the parent-teacher's organization, service and civic associations, or high school students.
In other words, the immediate current needs and long-range goals of city planning are communicated to audiences ranging in size from five to five hundred. Let's look at a typical situation before a typical audience. Our planner glances up from his notes or the text of his talk to a community group to see his audience slipping into a comfortable sleep. Although the speaker hears no snoring, he wonders about the stout man in the second row with his eyes closed and breathing rather heavily.
The woman who only last week had enthusiastically telephoned to request the speaker's presence at the meeting, is rereading the advertisements at the back of the printed program. The man beside her, having already studied every crack in the plaster, is now contemplating the gravy stain on his necktie. Certainly something as important as a plan for a city deserves better attention.
Intensive interest and enthusiasm must be achieved. Complicated problems concerning government and community development cannot be resolved until a myriad of committees, boards and civic groups has been informed about the problems, has talked about them, and has been given an opportunity to contribute to their solution. If groups that must give their wholehearted support do not understand the community's problems and the proposals aimed at their solutions, interest and enthusiasm vacillate.
Before too long, negative responses outweigh the positive. The problem, then, is to do everything possible to insure that the planner, as a speaker, is effective.
He can look, for example, to business and industry, the military, or the educational system where the management, though taking different forms, is vitally aware of the need to get groups of people interested and anxious to take their parts in a program — whether it be a sales campaign, nuclear warfare problem, or simple classroom lesson in history.
These diverse fields are turning more and more to audio-visual aids in their multitudinous communication jobs. Of the various media [including all forms of the written and spoken word] it is my belief that visual aids [to the spoken word] will prove to be of the most use to the planner, because they demand that he simplify the ideas he is presenting.
This helps the planner. The planner is required to clean up his thinking when he simplifies his story into pictures and that is difficult because as you know when you start to simplify, things get complicated. Before going into the types of audio-visual aids available to the planner, we must both define and limit our use of the basic term itself.
Audio-visual is, of course, a combination of two words: audio referring to that which we can hear, and visual referring to that which we can see. The basic frame of reference here limits our application of the term to a speaker and his audience, although they are not necessarily in the physical presence of one another, as in the case of a motion picture or television presentation.
The term "aids," used in reference to the speaker, rules out his physical presence visual and unrecorded voice audio. These are the essential elements which make him a speaker, and therefore cannot aid him his voice cannot aid his voice. Further, the uncontrollable physical surroundings are not audio-visual aids in themselves, although they can have a definite audio or visual effect and should therefore be considered, if possible, when preparing a presentation.
These include such things as distracting street noises a hindrance or a soundproofed room an aid ; or a beautiful mural behind the speaker a distraction , purple and orange walls a hindrance , or a paneled, modern meeting room with indirect lighting an aid.
Handouts, especially maps, charts or tables, make good visual aids. The audience, particularly a large one, can get a finer appreciation of details which cannot be enlarged in a suitable manner. However, the audience is left in a position to continue studying such material, both before and after the speaker refers to it, and thus he cannot "control" its use.
We are left, then, with audio-visual aids which the speaker can control, and which are suitable for use with audiences of widely varying sizes. The term "audio-visual aids" is commonly misapplied. The aids themselves must be something either audible or visual, or both. The common types of audible aids are the spoken word, recognizable sound effects, and music. The most frequently used visual aids are people, pictures, cartoons, graphics, maps, the printed word, and three-dimensional models.
When we talk about a motion picture projector or a blackboard, we are talking about the means of presenting the aids, and not the aids themselves. Audio-visual materials can be divided into those which present the aids in their original form, and those which reproduce the original form. In the following paragraphs, we will briefly define the most common means of display which make sights and sounds useable in the speaker-audience situation outlined above.
They will be discussed in further detail in later chapters. Movement may be given to different types of visual aids. The materials necessary to do so fall in this section, but since they are usually improvised they cannot be specifically defined. Examples are given later in this report. Black, green or other colored slate or composition board, or a specially painted surface which will "take" erasable white or colored chalk.
Bulletin Board. Flat board of cork, composition or other wood or material to which visual aids may be attached with pins, tacks or staples. Easel or A-frame. Any type of frame which will hold flat-surfaced visual aids of any given size; characterized by the artist's easel, which is similar in structure to the letter "A," with a third leg used as a brace.
Any stiff, flat board covered with wool, felt or flannel. A variety of visual aids, usually cutouts of objects or strips of cardboard lettered with key words, with sandpaper or other abrasive backing, will adhere to the board. The same effect can be achieved by backing the visual aids with two-sided cellophane or masking tape, and covering the board with a piece of acetate; or by using strips of Velcro.
Flash Cards. A series of stiff cards, usually small enough to be held in the hands, each of which is imprinted with one or more key words. Flip Charts. A series of visual aids on flexible paper, fastened together at the top and mounted on a frame in such a manner that they can be flipped or folded back. The frame usually resembles a football goal post, with the charts fastened to the crosspiece.
Model or Mock-up. A three-dimensional dummy, usually made to a small scale, which may or may not have working parts. The finished model is a visual aid. We are concerned here with construction materials. Different types of metal clips, fitting the holes, will hold visual aids such as small posters, books and models. Any long, thin strip of material, such as a stick, ruler, etc.
One new model contains a battery-powered flash light, with a beam shaped like a small arrow. The pointer can be used to indicate a portion of a slide, projected in a darkened room, without having the pointer's shadow fall on the screen. As was mentioned earlier, audible aids generally include the spoken word, recognizable sound effects, and music.
The materials thus include people, anything which will produce a desired sound effect, and musical instruments. Sound reproduction equipment, if sound is to be used, becomes a necessity in many cases. It might be inconvenient, for example, to recreate the din of downtown traffic, in its original form, within a small meeting room.
A little library research on theatrical sound effects may be helpful. All visual projection equipment, with the exception of mirrors, the earliest ''magic lanterns" and viewing screens, requires electricity to power its lighting elements.
There are five basic types of modern equipment. Filmstrip Projector.
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Audio-Visual Aids and Equipment
PAS published its first Information Report in To celebrate this history, each month we're presenting a new report from the archives. Download original report pdf. The great part of the planner's story is in the philosophy of long range planning.
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Оно было простым и ясным. Сьюзан остается в живых, Цифровая крепость обретает черный ход. Если не преследовать Хейла, черный ход останется секретом.
- Но если вы в центре, то это совсем недалеко от. - Извините, но для прогулок час слишком поздний.
Шифровалка умирала. То же самое будет и со мной, - подумала. Сьюзан вспомнила о единственном остающемся выходе - личном лифте Стратмора. Но она понимала, что надежды нет: электроника вряд ли уцелела после катастрофы. Двигаясь в дыму, она вдруг вспомнила слова Хейла: У этого лифта автономное электропитание, идущее из главного здания.
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