Womack And Jones 1996 Lean Thinking Pdf

  • and pdf
  • Thursday, January 21, 2021 6:20:19 AM
  • 0 comment
womack and jones 1996 lean thinking pdf

File Name: womack and jones 1996 lean thinking .zip
Size: 17146Kb
Published: 21.01.2021

Concludes that breaking down barriers in the West will be difficult — because the joint analysis of every action along the channel will make every firm's costs apparent — excluding privacy. Kippenberger, T. Report bugs here.

How to Root Out Waste and Pursue Perfection

By James P. Womack and Daniel T. Lean Thinking was first published in the fall of , just in time—we thought—for the recession of and the financial meltdown of Toward this end, it demonstrated how a range of firms in North America, Europe, and Japan took advantage of the recession of to rethink their strategies and embark on a new path. In our presentations to industrial audiences, we often point out that the only sure thing about forecasts is that they are wrong. Which is why lean thinkers strive to reduce order-to-delivery times to such an extent that most products can be made to order and always try to add or subtract capacity in small increments.

Instead of a recession in , the most ebullient economy of the entire twentieth century charged ahead for five more years, into , extending a remarkable era in which practically anyone could succeed in business. We have heard from readers across the world about their successes in applying its principles. Once reality caught up with our forecast, and the recession of gave way to the financial meltdown of , reader interest surged.

Indeed, Lean Thinking reappeared on the Business Week business-books bestseller list in —nearly five years after its launch and with no publicity campaign—an unprecedented event, according to our publishers. Given clear evidence that readers are now finding Lean Thinking even more relevant in their business lives than when it was first published, we have decided to expand and reissue the book.

In Part I we explain some simple, actionable principles for creating lasting value in any business during any business conditions. We then show in Part II how to apply these principles, step by step, in real businesses, from large to small. In Part III, we show how a relentless focus on the value stream for every product—from concept to launch and order to delivery, and from the upstream headwaters of the supply base all the way downstream into the arms of the customer—can create a true lean enterprise that optimizes the value created for the customer while minimizing time, cost, and errors.

In the two new chapters of Part IV, we bring the story of the continuing advance of lean thinking up-to-date. We track the trend in inventory turns—the lean metric that cannot lie—across all industries, singling out one industry for special praise. We also track the progress of our profiled companies. We discover that as economies have gyrated, stock markets have crashed, and the poster companies of the s hailed in other business books have flown a ballistic trajectory, our lean exemplars—led by Toyota—have defied the fate of most firms featured in successful business books.

They have continued their methodical march from success to success and have done it the hard way by creating real and truly sustainable value for their customers, their employees, and their owners. Finally, in the concluding chapter, we share what we have ourselves learned since about lean thinking and its successful application by describing a range of new implementation tools.

These begin with the concept of value stream mapping, which we have found to be a remarkable way to raise consciousness about value and its components, leading to action.

In revising the book we have corrected a few minor errors and omissions in the original text. However, we have been careful not to change the pagination. We know that many organizations use Lean Thinking as a text to guide their change process, distributing copies widely and often including their distributors and suppliers.

Thus we wanted to ensure that there will be no difficulty in interchanging the two editions. Today, nearly seven years after its publication, we are even more certain that lean thinking, as explained in Lean Thinking, is the single most powerful tool available for creating value while eliminating waste in any organization.

We hope that previous readers will use this new edition as an opportunity to renew their commitment to lean principles. And we especially hope that many new readers will discover a whole new world of opportunity. In the fall of , we set out on a trip around the world to launch our previous book, The Machine That Changed the World.

Our objective was to send a wake-up message to organizations, managers, employees, and investors stuck in the old-fashioned world of mass production. Machine presented a wealth of benchmarking data to show that there is a better way to organize and manage customer relations, the supply chain, product development, and production operations, an approach pioneered by the Toyota company after World War II.

We labeled this new way lean production because it does more and more with less and less. As we started our travels across North America, then to Japan where many mass producers still reside and Korea, and on through Europe, we were greatly concerned that no one would listen. Perhaps the slumber of mass production was too deep to disturb?

More than , copies have been sold so far in eleven languages not counting the pirated Chinese translation. Far from ignoring our findings or resisting our advice, many audiences during that inaugural trip and many readers in subsequent forums told us that they were anxious to give lean production a try.

Their question was seemingly a simple one: How do we do it? In posing this question, they were not asking about specific techniques— how to organize teams, how to use Quality Function Deployment in product development, or how to poka-yoke mistake-proof production processes. After all, there is a plethora of very good books on each of these topics.

Rather, they were asking: What are the key principles to guide our actions? A few thoughtful respondents asked an even more difficult question: What comes next? We had been busy benchmarking industrial performance across the world for fifteen years, but Machine focused on aggregated processes—product development, sales, production— rather than broad principles, and we had never ourselves tried to convert a mass-production organization into a lean one.

What was more, we had been so busy thinking through the initial leap from mass to lean production that we had not had time to think much about next steps for firms like Toyota. The idea for this book emerged directly from these questions. First, we realized that we needed to concisely summarize the principles of lean thinking to provide a sort of North Star, a dependable guide for action for managers striving to transcend the day-to-day chaos of mass production.

This summary was hard for most readers to construct because the Japanese originators of lean techniques worked from the bottom up. They talked and thought mostly about specific methods applied to specific activities in engineering offices, purchasing departments, sales groups, and factories: dedicated product development teams, target pricing, level scheduling, cellular manufacturing.

As a result, we met many managers who had drowned in techniques as they tried to implement isolated bits of a lean system without understanding the whole. After interactions with many audiences and considerable reflection, we concluded that lean thinking can be summarized in five principles: precisely specify value by specific product, identify the value stream for each product, make value flow without interruptions, let the customer pull value from the producer, and pursue perfection.

By clearly understanding these principles, and then tying them all together, managers can make full use of lean techniques and maintain a steady course. These principles and their application are the subject of Part I of this book.

With regard to the conversion process, we knew of one heroic example— the original lean leap by Toyota immediately after World War II—but only in sketchy outline. What was more, our most striking benchmark examples in Machine were the greenfield plants started from scratch by Japanese auto firms in the West in the s. These were critical achievements because they blew away all the claims, so prevalent up to that time, that, to work, lean production somehow depended on Japanese cultural institutions.

Greenfields, however—with new bricks and mortar, new employees, and new tools—bore little resemblance to the long-established brownfields most managers were struggling to fix.

Our readers wanted a detailed plan of march suited to their reality, and one that would apply in any industry. We therefore resolved to identify firms in a range of industries in the leading industrial countries that had created or were creating lean organizations from mass-production brownfields. Observing what they had done seemed to be our best hope of discovering the common methods of becoming lean.

In doing this, we did not want a survey to discover average practice but rather to concentrate on the outliers—those organizations recently moving far beyond convention to make a true leap into leanness. But where to find them? We knew the motor vehicle industry well, but we wanted examples from across the industrial landscape, including service organizations.

In addition, we wanted examples of small firms to complement household-name giants, low-volume producers to contrast with high-volume automakers, and high-tech firms to compare against those with mature technologies.

In the end, through a lot of hard digging and some good fortune, we tapped into networks of lean thinking executives in North America, Europe, and Japan, and gained hands-on experience from a personal investment in a small manufacturing company.

Over a four-year period, we interacted with more than fifty firms in a wide range of industries and gained a deep understanding of the human exertions needed to convert mass-production organizations to leanness.

We describe our findings and prescribe a practical plan of action in Part II of this book. To our delight, as we began to find our key examples, this book became an intensive collaboration between a group of like-minded people across the world.

They believe passionately in a set of ideas, have made great progress in introducing them, and want to see lean thinking universally embraced. At the end of this volume we list the firms and executives we have worked with and describe ways for you to join them. Here let us simply express our profound appreciation for the hours, days, and even weeks many of them took with us.

Because we needed to look at the entire firm, indeed at the whole value stream for specific products, running from raw material to finished good, order to delivery, and concept to launch, and because we needed to examine many things which would rightly be considered proprietary, we proposed an unusual way of working together.

In return for access to every aspect of the firm, including interviews with suppliers, customers, and unions, we offered to share our drafts with our respondents, asking for criticism and corrections.

We stated in advance that any material our example firms could not bear seeing in the public domain would be deleted, but if the need to protect proprietary interests or self-esteem required deletion of those details which made the story true, we would simply leave the firm in question out of the book.

There is today a profound and warranted skepticism about business books, both because they promise instant cures and because their authors—especially consultants but sometimes academics as well—have financial links to the firms they write about. We therefore need to assure you that we have no financial or consulting relationship of any sort to any of the individuals or firms we write about in these pages.

We need to further assure you that we have verified all the performance data presented. Indeed, in most cases we have verified it with our own eyes by walking the production floor and spending extended periods in the engineering, marketing, sales, customer support, and purchasing functions and with product development teams.

As we began to write up our findings on how to make a lean leap in traditional, mass-production organizations, we began to realize that it is both possible and necessary to go even farther than any firms have done to date. A wholly new way of thinking about the roles of firms, functions, and careers to channel the flow of value from concept to launch, order to delivery, and raw material into the arms of the customer is now needed in order to achieve a further leap.

A new concept—the lean enterprise —can move the whole value stream for products dramatically in the direction of perfection. There we also dream a bit about the next leap. No one has made it yet. Perhaps some reader will be the first. After four years of exhaustive study of organizations around the world who are actually doing it, we now know how to succeed at leanness. As the examples will show, we know how to apply lean thinking, techniques, and organization to practically any activity, whether a good or a service.

Your job, therefore, is simple: Just do it! Perhaps there are even more. Fortunately, there is a powerful antidote to muda: lean thinking. It provides a way to specify value, line up value-creating actions in the best sequence, conduct these activities without interruption whenever someone requests them, and perform them more and more effectively.

In short, lean thinking is lean because it provides a way to do more and more with less and less— less human effort, less equipment, less time, and less space—while coming closer and closer to providing customers with exactly what they want. Lean thinking also provides a way to make work more satisfying by providing immediate feedback on efforts to convert muda into value. And, in striking contrast with the recent craze for process reengineering, it provides a way to create new work rather than simply destroying jobs in the name of efficiency.

The critical starting point for lean thinking is value. Value can only be defined by the ultimate customer. Value is created by the producer. Yet for a host of reasons value is very hard for producers to accurately define.

Business school—trained senior executives of American firms routinely greet us when we visit with a slick presentation about their organization, their technology, their core competencies, and their strategic intentions.

Then, over lunch, they tell us about their short-term competitive problems specifically their need to garner adequate profits in the next quarter and the consequent cost-cutting initiatives. These often involve clever ways to eliminate jobs, divert revenues from their downstream customers, and extract profits from their upstream suppliers. Because we are associated with the concept of lean production, they are usually eager to label these programs lean, although often they are only mean.

Apply lean thinking to a value stream to create a lean enterprise

By James P. Womack and Daniel T. Lean Thinking was first published in the fall of , just in time—we thought—for the recession of and the financial meltdown of Toward this end, it demonstrated how a range of firms in North America, Europe, and Japan took advantage of the recession of to rethink their strategies and embark on a new path. In our presentations to industrial audiences, we often point out that the only sure thing about forecasts is that they are wrong. Which is why lean thinkers strive to reduce order-to-delivery times to such an extent that most products can be made to order and always try to add or subtract capacity in small increments.

The application of lean thinking has made a significant impact both in academic and industrial circles over the last decade. The resulting lack of definition has led to confusion and fuzzy boundaries with other management concepts. Summarising the lean evolution, this paper comments on approaches that have sought to address some of the earlier gaps in lean thinking. Linking the evolution of lean thinking to the contingency and learning organisation schools of thought, the objective of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the evolution of lean not only as a concept, but also its implementation within an organisation, and point out areas for future research. Hines, P.

Lean production transformed manufacturing. During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time.


Womack and Jones () brought the discussion to a higher level of abstraction​. Whereas the authors asserted that their first book had shown.


Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation

In the expanded second edition of the landmark book Lean Thinking , the authors revisit the companies studied in the first edition to discover that the continuing application of lean thinking has permitted these firms to prosper. In the first of two new chapters, the authors track the trend in inventory turns — the lean metric that cannot lie — across all industries, singling out one industry for special praise. In this variety of companies and production environments, the authors find that lean thinking is more relevant than ever.

The term "Lean" was coined in by John Krafcik , and defined in by James Womack and Daniel Jones to consist of five key principles: 'Precisely specify value by specific product, identify the value stream for each product, make value flow without interruptions, let customer pull value from the producer, and pursue perfection.

0 Comments