Lower Limb Muscles Origin And Insertion Pdf

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lower limb muscles origin and insertion pdf

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This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy. There are around skeletal muscles [1] within the typical human body. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e. The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs. The action refers to the action of each muscle from the standard anatomical position.

Table of Lower Limb Muscles

A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving.

A collection of data interpretation guides to help you learn how to interpret various laboratory and radiology investigations.

A comprehensive collection of medical revision notes that cover a broad range of clinical topics. A collection of anatomy notes covering the key anatomy concepts that medical students need to learn. Each clinical case scenario allows you to work through history taking, investigations, diagnosis and management.

A collection of free medical student quizzes to put your medical and surgical knowledge to the test! Table of Contents. The leg is defined anatomically as the portion of the lower limb from the knee joint to the ankle joint. The muscles of the leg are divided into three compartments : the anterior compartment, the posterior compartment and the lateral compartment. In total, there are 13 separate muscles across these three compartments.

The muscles in the anterior compartment act to dorsiflex and invert the foot, as well as extend the toes. Muscles in the posterior compartment plantarflex the foot, flex the toes and invert the foot. Lateral compartment muscles of the leg act to evert the foot. These two groups are divided by a layer of deep fascia called the transverse intermuscular septum. As a group these muscles act to plantarflex and invert the foot, as well as flexing the toes. All muscles within the posterior compartment are innervated by the tibial nerve.

The three muscles of the superficial group are gastrocnemius , soleus and plantaris. These strong powerful muscles are able to propel the body forward when moving and elevate it upwards on to the toes. All three of the superficial muscles insert into the calcaneus heel via the calcaneal tendon , the most powerful tendon in the body.

Gastrocnemius is the most superficial muscle within the posterior compartment and originates from its two heads , the medial and lateral head. These heads form the borders of the lower section of the popliteal fossa, an important anatomical landmark for neurovascular structures.

The heads of gastrocnemius combine to form the muscle belly of the characteristic calf shape and distally contribute to the formation of the calcaneal tendon. Soleus is a large flat muscle located underneath gastrocnemius that received its name for its resemblance to a Sole, a type of flatfish.

Soleus has three origin points, one of which being the tendinous arch of soleus which spans between the tibia and fibula. This tendinous arch is where the popliteal artery exits the popliteal fossa to enter the deep region of the posterior compartment of the leg, immediately dividing into the anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries.

Origin : soleal line and medial border of tibia; posterior fibular head; and tendinous arch between tibial and fibular attachments. Blood supply : posterior tibial, fibular and sural arteries branches from the popliteal artery. Plantaris is a small muscle with a short belly and a long tendon which joins the calcaneal tendon distally.

Its involvement in foot plantarflexion or knee flexion is insignificant and as a result, the plantaris tendon can be removed for grafting e. Origin : inferior part of the lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament of knee.

There are four muscles which make up the deep group of the posterior compartment: popliteus , flexor digitorum longus , flexor hallucis longus and posterior tibialis. Popliteus is the only muscle to act on the knee whereas the others act on the foot and toes.

Popliteus is a flat triangular-shaped muscle that forms part of the floor of the popliteal fossa. The main function of popliteus is to unlock the knee. It does this by rotating the femur laterally 5 o to release the knee from its locked position allowing flexion to occur. Action : unlocks the knee joint by laterally rotating the femur on the fixed tibia as well as stabilising the knee joint. Located between flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior is the deepest muscle in the posterior compartment.

Whilst this muscle is involved with inversion and plantarflexion of the foot, its main function is to support the medial arch of the foot. To test tibialis posterior, invert the foot against resistance in slight plantarflexion. If normal, the tendon should be visible and can be palpated posterior to the medial malleolus. Action : inversion and plantarflexion of the foot.

Supports the medial arch of the foot during walking. Flexor digitorum longus begins on the medial side of the posterior compartment and descends down the leg where its tendon enters the sole of foot to insert on the distal phalanges of the lateral four toes. The muscle is involved with gripping the ground during walking by flexing the lateral four toes.

It originates on the lateral side of the posterior compartment and its tendon curves under the talus bone in the foot to insert into the distal phalanx of the great toe. There is immediate pain in the calf and sudden dorsiflexion of the previously plantarflexed foot.

Due to shortening of gastrocnemius and soleus a lump can be felt in the calf and in a completely ruptured tendon, a gap may be palpable just proximal to the calcaneal attachment. A history of calcaneal tendonitis and use of quinolone antibiotics e. The patient lies prone on the examination couch with their feet hanging over the edge and the examiner squeezes the calf muscles and whilst observing for plantarflexion of the foot. The absence of plantarflexion a normal response is indicative of Achilles tendon rupture.

Depending on the patient, treatment can be surgical or non-surgical. In older or non-athletic people, non-surgical management is often adequate but those with an active lifestyle may require surgical intervention. There are only two muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg: fibularis longus and fibularis brevis. You may also see these muscles referred to as peroneal longus and peroneal brevis. The same occurs for the common fibular nerve or common peroneal nerve. Both muscles evert the foot and are innervated by a branch of the common fibular nerve, the superficial fibular nerve.

Fibularis longus is the longer and more superficial of the two muscles in the lateral compartment, originating from the upper lateral surface and head of the fibula. Its tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus and enters the lateral side of the foot crossing under the sole of the foot, attaching to the medial side of the cuneiform and base of the first metatarsal. Together with tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior, they act as a stirrup to support the arches of the foot.

Action : eversion and plantarflexion of the foot. Provides support to the lateral and transverse arches of the foot. It lies deep to fibularis longus and originates from the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the fibular shaft. Its tendon passes behind the lateral malleolus with the fibularis longus tendon to insert on to a tubercle at the base of the fifth metatarsal. In the anterior compartment of the leg, there are four muscles : tibialis anterior , extensor hallucis longus , extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius.

Some texts may consider extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to be the same muscle and therefore only refer to three muscles in the anterior compartment. However, in this article, we are classing them as separate muscles. Together the muscles in this compartment act to dorsiflex and invert the foot, and extend the toes.

All are innervated by the deep fibular nerve , a branch of the common fibular nerve. Compartment syndrome often occurs due to muscle swelling. The swelling muscle is confined in a fixed volume compartment and this causes an increase in pressure within the compartment.

Over time the pressure in the compartment surpasses the arterial pressure , resulting in loss of arterial blood supply and secondary tissue ischaemia. Compartment syndrome can be acute or chronic, but it is most commonly due to trauma such as a bone fracture or crush injury. Pain and paraesthesia are early symptoms and should prompt initiation of treatment. If there are reduced or absent pulses, then this suggests severe ischaemic damage.

Immediate treatment involves removing constrictive dressings and raising the limb above the level of the heart. Fasciotomy of the muscle compartments releases pressure and should be performed as soon as possible to minimise the risk of irreversible ischaemia.

Tibialis anterior TA is the most superficial and medial muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg. It is the most powerful dorsiflexor of the foot and during walking provides support for the medial arch of the foot. The function of TA can be assessed by asking a patient to dorsiflex their foot against resistance or stand on their heels. The tendon of a healthy TA should be clearly visible during these movements.

Action : dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot as well as supporting the medial arch of the foot. Extensor hallucis longus EHL is located deeply between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. It begins at the middle of half of the fibula and interosseous membrane travelling down anteriorly to insert at the distal phalanx of the great toe.

Origin : medial surface of fibula and adjacent surface of the interosseous membrane. The most lateral of the muscles in the anterior compartment, extensor digitorum longus EDL originates mainly from the medial surface of the fibula but also from the lateral tibial condyle. The muscle forms its tendon in the lower third of the leg which then later divides into four tendons inserting into the lateral four toes.

Proximally fibularis tertius FT is continuous with EDL and as a result, some texts consider it to be part of the EDL rather than a muscle in its own right. However, distally the tendon of FT is separate from EDL and inserts into the fifth metatarsal as shown in the diagram of the lateral foot below. FT is not always present in all humans. Foot drop occurs as a result of injury to the common fibular nerve.

The common fibular nerve is susceptible to injury because of its superficial location when it passes around the neck of the fibula. Potential mechanisms of injury include direct trauma, secondary to a knee injury such as a dislocation, or as a result of a proximal fibular fracture. Damage to the common fibular nerve results in paralysis of all muscles in the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg the muscles which dorsiflex and evert the foot. Consequently, an inability to dorsiflex the foot results in foot drop.

People with injury to the common fibular nerve may also experience loss of sensation on the anterolateral aspect of the leg and dorsum of the foot. Clinical Examination. Heart Murmurs.

List of skeletal muscles of the human body

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Iliotibial tract which inserts lateral Hip flexion and medial rotation, tenses Tensor Fascia latae Iliac crest, lateral ASIS Superior gluteal L4-S1 tibial condyle fascia lata which supports knee laterally. Ischopubic rami, obturator membrane, medial margins of Nerve to obturator internus L5, Obturator internus Medial side of Greater trochanter LR hip obturator foramen, anterolateral S1 wall of true pelvis. Quadrate tubercle on the Nerve to quadratus femoris L5- Quadratus Femoris Lateral border of Ischial tuberosity intertorchanteric crest of the LR hip S1 , special nerve from sacral proximal femur plexus. Superior iliac fossa, wing ala of Lesser trochanter of femur tendon Iliacus sacrum, anterior sacroiliac Hip flexion Femoral nerve L2-L4 fused with that of psoas major ligaments,. Anterior, inferior to greater Vastus Lateralis Tibial tuberosity via patella ligament Knee extension Femoral L2-L4 trochanter and linea aspera. Inferior ramus of pubis add head Linear aspera, adductor tubercle Adduction of thigh depending on hip Adductor Magnus and ischial tuberosity hamstring Obturator and sciatic femur position head. Adduct, medially, flex the thigh Pectineus Inferior ramus of pubis Linea aspera of femur Femoral depending on hip position.

The muscles that move the thigh have their origins on some part of the pelvic girdle and their insertions on the femur. The largest muscle mass belongs to the posterior group, the gluteal muscles, which, as a group, adduct the thigh. The iliopsoas, an anterior muscle, flexes the thigh. The muscles in the medial compartment adduct the thigh. The illustration below shows some of the muscles of the lower extremity. Muscles that move the leg are located in the thigh region. The quadriceps femoris muscle group straightens the leg at the knee.

Discover the origins, insertions, innervations, and functions of every muscle with our muscle anatomy Upper limb; Lower limb; Head and neck; Trunk wall.

Muscles of the Lower Leg

A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving.

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 Проваливай! - крикнула.  - Вон. Беккер совсем забыл о кольце, об Агентстве национальной безопасности, обо всем остальном, проникшись жалостью к девушке. Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик. - Вы себя хорошо чувствуете? - спросил он, пятясь к двери.

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Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора.


  1. Jodie D. 21.01.2021 at 06:51

    Getting started with blender pdf harry potter book 1 pdf google drive

  2. Agripino G. 24.01.2021 at 09:37

    By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations:.

  3. Amorette B. 24.01.2021 at 19:04

    ORIGIN: Iliac fossa (ilium); crest of os coxa; ala (sacrum). INSERTION: lesser trochanter (femur). INNERVATION: femoral nerve. ACTION.

  4. Benjamin V. 26.01.2021 at 20:05

    1st layer: Abductor hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis, Abductor digiti minimi. Quadratus plantae. Lumbricals. Flexor digitorum longus tendon. Flexor hallucis longus tendon. Flexor hallucis brevis.