Bela Balazs Theory Of Film Character And Growth Of A New Art Pdf
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- Gilles Deleuze’s Time Machine
- Balázs: Realist or Modernist
- Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art
- Bela Balazs Theory of Film
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Gilles Deleuze’s Time Machine
It revealed to us a new world—a world of micro-physiognomy which could not otherwise be seen with the naked eye or in everyday life. Such films were unsurpassed in showing the Strindbergian moods in the savagely antagonistic silences of human beings confined together in narrow spaces. The micro-tragedies in the peace and quiet of ordinary families were shown as deadly battles, just as the microscope shows the fierce struggles of micro-organisms in a drop of water.
TTF, pp. We were witnesses not only to the development of a new art but to the development of a new sensibility, a new understanding, a new culture in its public.
We have learned to see. Hereafter cited in the text as TTF. For Epstein and Vertov, the eye is flawed and unreliable because of innate, physiological handicaps, which cannot be over- come except perhaps by evolution. For Epstein, the eye shrouds reality in deceptive, anthropomorphic appearances: These [cinematic] experiments contradict and throw into confusion the sense of order which we have established at great cost in our conception of the universe. Yet it is hardly news that any classification has something of the arbitrary about it and that we abandon frameworks that seem overly artificial.
The generalized sense of our own psychological time, which still varies very little, turns out to be an illusion that we have created in order to think more easily. The gaze which cinematography lets us cast over nature, where such time is neither unique nor constant, is perhaps more fecund than the one we cast out of egocentric habit. Not without some anxiety, man finds himself before that chaos which he has covered up, denied, for- gotten, or thought was tamed.
Cinema apprises him of a monster. And symbols not of matter, which therefore does not exist, but of energy; that is, of something which in itself seems not to be, except in its effects as they affect us. Hence, human beings are normally confused by what they see. Vertov gives as an example stage performances. Richard Abel Princeton, N. Annette Michelson, trans. A day of visual impressions has passed. How is one to construct the impressions of the day into an effective whole, a visual study?
If one films everything the eye has seen, the result, of course, will be a jumble. If one scraps bothersome waste, it will be better still. The loss of this ability means that the dimension of the inner that used to be expressed by the face and body can no longer be expressed: We had, however, when we neglected the body as a means of expression, lost more than mere corporal power of expression.
That which was to have been expressed was also narrowed down by this neglect. For it is not the same spirit, not the same soul that is expressed once in words and once in gestures. TTF, p. Language and the body each express different realms of the inner. Those who do not speak may be brimming over with emotions which can be expressed only in forms and pictures, in gesture and play of fea- ture. The man of visual culture uses these not as substitutes for words, as a deaf-mute uses his fingers.
He does not think in words, the syllables of which he sketches in the air like the dots and dashes of the Morse code. My emphasis. Such emotions lie in the deepest levels of the soul and cannot be approached by words that are mere reflections of con- cepts; just as our musical experiences cannot be expressed in rationalized concepts.
What appears on the face and in facial expression is a spiritual experience which is rendered immediately visible without the intermedi- ary of words. They have lost this visual capacity or skill, because the face and body are no longer used to express the inner. Meanwhile, because the cinema lacks synchronized sound in the silent era, actors are forced to re-learn how to express the inner through facial expression and bodily behavior. Now the film is about to inaugurate a new direction in our culture.
Many million people sit in the picture houses every evening and purely through vision, experience happenings, characters, emotions, moods, even thoughts, without the need for many words.
Humanity is already learning the rich and colorful language of gesture, movement, and facial expression. This is not a language of signs as a substitute for words, like the sign language of the deaf and dumb—it is the visual means of communication, without intermediary of souls clothed in flesh.
Man has again become visible. It is still clumsy and primitive and very far removed as yet from the refinements of word art. But already it is beginning to be able sometimes to express things that escape the artists of the word. How much of human thought would remain unexpressed if we had no music! Although these human experiences are not rational, conceptual contents, they are nevertheless neither vague nor blurred, but as clear and unequivocal as is music.
Thus the inner man, too, will become visible. The cin- ema, he thought, was re-educating human beings how to use and understand the language of facial expression and bodily behavior. With the arrival of synchronized sound, however, all of this changed. Actors reverted to spoken language to express the inner, and the new education being offered by cinema in the silent era was cut short. Rudolf Arnheim nicely summarizes key elements of this view at the beginning of Art and Visual Perception : We have neglected the gift of comprehending things through our senses.
Concept is divorced from precept, and thought moves among abstrac- tions. Our eyes have been reduced to instruments with which to identify and to measure; hence we suffer a paucity of ideas that can be expressed in images and an incapacity to discover meaning in what we see.
Naturally we feel lost in the presence of objects that make sense only to undiluted vision, and we seek refuge in the more familiar medium of words. Finally, there is the Clearly, this theory evinces a deep skepticism about the normal exercise of the visual faculty, seeing it as part of a modern consciousness enslaved to rational, instru- mental imperatives. Blurred outlines are mostly the result of our insensitive short-sightedness and superficiality. We skim over the teeming substance of life.
The camera has uncovered that cell life of the vital issues in which all great events are ultimately conceived; for the greatest landslide is only the aggregate of the movements of single particles. A multitude of close- ups can show us the very instant in which the general is transformed into the particular. The close-up has not only widened our vision of life, it has also deepened it.
In the days of the silent film it not only revealed new things, but showed us the meaning of the old. All he hears is the leading melody, all the rest is blurred into a gen- eral murmur. Only those who can really understand and enjoy the music can hear the contrapuntal architecture of each part in the score. This is how we see life: only its leading melody meets the eye. Because the naked eye cannot see details, it is unable to see the inner expressed in the details of the faces and bodies of others.
Although this happened to some extent, the use of the close-up in sound film ensured that this realm of the inner remained partially visible, even though actors were no longer forced to use their faces and bodies to express themselves because of synchronized dialogue. This is because the close-up, by isolat- ing and magnifying the details of the faces and bodies it films, can reveal the inner expressed in those details—details that the naked eye cannot see unaided.
Its revelatory capacity rescues human beings from the particular type of blindness that, due to skepticism, he believes the naked eye to be suffering from: an inability to see other minds.
This answer is different from the two answers to this question that have domi- nated film theorizing since it began. Furthermore, like modernism, it reemerged with renewed vigor in the s. A famous example of this modernist answer is provided by Arnheim in his Film as Art, first published in According to Arnheim, if a filmmaker wishes to create a work of art, he cannot simply reproduce what is in front of the camera.
Rather, he must express something about what is in front of the camera using uniquely cinematic techniques. This is because Arnheim has an anti-imitation and a medium-specificity conception of art, both prevalent in modernism: The film producer himself is influenced by the strong resemblance of his photographic material to reality. As distinguished from the tools of the sculptor and the painter, which by themselves produce nothing resem- bling nature, the camera starts to turn and a likeness of the real world results mechanically.
There is serious danger that the filmmaker will rest content with such shapeless reproduction. In order that the film artist may create a work of art it is important that he consciously stress the pecu- liarities of his medium. This, however, should be done in such a manner that the character of the objects represented should not thereby be destroyed but rather strengthened, concentrated, and interpreted.
The second of the historically dominant answers to the question What is Cinema? Bazin offers a number of arguments in his writings for why this is so. One focuses on the fact that photographs mechani- cally record reality. When exposed, the chemicals on the surface of a film automatically register the light emanating from whatever the camera is pointing toward.
While I do not dispute that these two answers—the modernist and the realist— to the question What is Cinema? This answer constitutes a dis- tinct alternative to the historically dominant ones of modernism and realism.
It is this that sets them apart from realists such as Bazin, who believe in the capacity of the human eye to see reality as it really is, who have faith in normal human vision. On the bakery, the bread: series on journeyman bakers, seen in the cellar itself or through the air vents from the street.
No one has ever done monuments or houses from below, from beneath, up close, as one sees them going by in the streets. It is not a reliable source of information about reality.
Balázs: Realist or Modernist
Hou Hsiao-hsien: A new video lecture! How Motion Pictures Became the Movies. Constructive editing in Pickpocket : A video essay. Rex Stout: Logomachizing. Lessons with Bazin: Six Paths to a Poetics. Murder Culture: Adventures in s Suspense.
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Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art
This new film about the war-turning June Battle of Midway has caused controversy among various reviewers, but it seems to me - a military and naval history historian and game designer - to be a vast improvement over the previous Midway film, especially regarding the background and runup to the battle. London: D. Appleton and Company, Allan Langdale. New York: Routledge,
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Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. Back to results. The author, in this new edition of a classic on film theory, proposes that films have a greater influence on the minds of the general public than any other art form; therefore, a careful study of film is necessary to control and direct its potential influence. He delineates the early history of films, pointing out that not until 10 or 12 years after the invention of the motion picture camera did a truly visual language begin to emerge.
Bela Balazs Theory of Film
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Why are people not taught appreciate films? Dangers of Ignorance;II. Metaphorical montage; Poetic montage; Allegoric montage; Literary Intellectual metaphors; Associations of ideas; montage; Rhythm in montage; Speed in action and speed in cutting; Scene in ritordando, shots in accelerando; Length of shots; Rhythm of the sound film; Musical and decorative rhythm incutting; Subjective cutting;film; Inexpressive sport,. Sound cannot he isolated; Educating our ear: Sounds throw no shadow; Sounds have no Sound has a space colouring; Basic problem of sound reproduction; Sounds cannot be by images; Sound montage; Sound Asynchronous sound effects; The mostinstrument;. In particular Ms two books, publishedIE. He died as itthat. Balazs pointed out to his.
Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art B. Balázs; Published ; Art. Create Alert. Research Feed PDF. Alert. Research Feed. View 4 excerpts. Book Reviews. Alert. Research Experiential Empiricism and Children's Films Theory of Film: Character and Growth of a New Art - Bela Balazs.
Visual Culture, Ethnography, and Early German Cinema
Я отлично все понял! - Он уставил на Беккера костлявый указательный палец, и его голос загремел на всю палату. - Вы не первый. Они уже пытались сделать то же самое в Мулен Руж, в отеле Брауне пэлис и в Голфиньо в Лагосе. Но что попало на газетную полосу. Правда.
ГЛАВА 109 Командный центр главного банка данных АНБ более всего напоминал Центр управления полетами НАСА в миниатюре. Десяток компьютерных терминалов располагались напротив видеоэкрана, занимавшего всю дальнюю стену площадью девять на двенадцать метров.