Growth And Development Of Infants Pdf

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Multicomponent lifestyle modification interventions designed for gestational and early postnatal periods may be key to preventing obesity in children. Postnatal data were collected from 24 experimental and 30 control participants between September and May As compared with a standard educational control curriculum, an educational curriculum enhanced with diet and physical activity components was not effective at improving infant growth outcomes.

Infancy , among humans, the period of life between birth and the acquisition of language approximately one to two years later. A brief treatment of infancy follows.

Physical growth refers to an increase in body size length or height and weight and in the size of organs. From birth to about age 1 or 2 years, children grow rapidly. After this time, growth slows. As growth slows, children need fewer calories and parents may notice a decrease in appetite.

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Multicomponent lifestyle modification interventions designed for gestational and early postnatal periods may be key to preventing obesity in children. Postnatal data were collected from 24 experimental and 30 control participants between September and May As compared with a standard educational control curriculum, an educational curriculum enhanced with diet and physical activity components was not effective at improving infant growth outcomes.

The prenatal through early childhood periods are likely key to the development and thus prevention of obesity and its consequences in children 3. Thus, lifestyle interventions designed for both the gestational period i. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project was designed to compare the impact of two maternal, infant and early childhood home visiting curricula on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity and other health behaviours of women and their infants residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta region of the USA.

Infant diet, activity and sleep outcomes are being reported elsewhere. The primary objective of the paper was to determine if infant growth outcomes differed between treatment arms. Secondary objectives were to explore associations among infant characteristics and growth outcomes. It was hypothesized that infants born to participants in the experimental arm of the intervention would have improved growth outcomes i. Participants provided written informed consent.

Recruitment occurred via distribution of flyers and brochures, and study staff on site at health clinics and medical facilities serving pregnant women and at health fairs.

Baseline data were collected from 82 pregnant women between March and December Target enrolment was 75 women in each of the two treatment arms. Recruitment was stopped prior to reaching these numbers due to unexpected difficulties recruiting pregnant women meeting study criteria and fiscal reasons. Data collection was completed in May Flow diagram of recruitment, assignment, enrollment and completion of gestational and postnatal periods for Delta Healthy Sprouts participants in the two treatment arms.

The program seeks to increase parental knowledge of child development, improve parenting practices, provide early detection of developmental delays, prevent child abuse and increase school readiness 6. Materials were responsive to parental information requests and tailored to the child's age. The PATE experimental arm built upon the PAT curriculum by adding culturally tailored, maternal weight management and early childhood obesity prevention components.

The PATE curriculum was guided by theoretical underpinnings of the social cognitive theory 7 e. Additional elements included anticipatory guidance and parenting support Anticipatory guidance involves providing practical, developmentally appropriate, child health information to parents in anticipation of significant physical, emotional and psychological milestones Parenting support emphasizes children's psychological and behavioural goals, logical and natural consequences, mutual respect and encouragement techniques Intervention components of the PATE arm included appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and weight management after pregnancy, nutrition and physical activity in the gestational and postnatal periods, and parental modelling of healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviours.

Monthly lesson topics included breastfeeding GM 8 and GM 9 visits , mixed and formula feeding GM 9 visit , infant feeding cues GM 9 and PM 1 visits , tummy and confinement time for infants PM 1 visit , appropriate introduction of solid foods PM 3 and PM 4 visits , family play time and decreased TV time PM 6 visit , toddler feeding PM 8 visit and healthy, toddler friendly meals and managing toddler food rejection and demands PM 10 visit. Subsequently, Parent Educators interpreted and discussed the infant's growth with the mother.

Parent Educators were African American, college educated women residing in the target communities who completed the onsite PAT foundational training program. Parent Educators were trained to deliver the nutrition and physical activity lessons and to enroll and collect data from participants, including dietary intake, by PhD level senior research staff members who were certified master trainers in the Nutrition Data System for Research software versions , , , University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

All participants received incentives e. A comprehensive description of the Delta Healthy Sprouts Project, including additional details regarding study methodology, lesson plan outlines and Parent Educator training, has been published elsewhere 5. Anthropometric measures obtained on the infants included length and weight, which were measured in duplicate if the two measures agreed or in triplicate if the two measures did not agree.

For analytic purposes, the measures were averaged. Length was measured using an infantometer model seca , seca, Birmingham, UK. Infant length and weight were measured at each postnatal visit.

Anthropometric measures obtained on the mothers at the baseline GM 4 visit included height, which was measured in duplicate using a portable stadiometer model , seca and weight, which was measured using a digital scale.

Both measures were performed without shoes or heavy clothing. Body mass index was calculated as weight kg divided by height m squared where height was averaged if the two measurements differed. Weight also was measured at each of the 17 subsequent 5 gestational and 12 postnatal visits. Breastfeeding initiation and duration and infant sleep duration were collected from the participants via electronic surveys.

Breastfeeding duration was not included in the current analysis because so few participants were currently breastfeeding at the PM 1 visit Breastfeeding initiation and infant sleep duration were included in these analyses because they have been associated with child weight outcomes 4 , 16 , At the first postnatal visit, participants provided information regarding birth outcomes. Details regarding other measures and questionnaire data that were collected but are not relevant to the present paper have been published elsewhere 5.

All measures and questionnaires were collected or administered by Parent Educators using laptop computers loaded with relevant software Snap Surveys, version Statistical analyses were performed using SAS. The infant's age in months at the time his or her growth first met these criteria was used as the time to the event of interest overweight or RIWG.

Observations were considered censored if the participant dropped from the study prior to the PM 12 visit or the infant did not experience the event at study end. Covariate adjustments were not performed in the model testing for treatment arm differences because of small sample sizes.

SNAP participation and infant gender were modelled because these characteristics differed between treatment arms. Mean number of postnatal visits was Treatment differences were not apparent for either of the infant growth outcomes.

None of the household or infant characteristics tested were significantly associated with time to overweight. Clearly, implementation of effective lifestyle interventions in this region of the country is paramount to improving the health of its residents, particularly during childhood. The relationship between obesity and short sleep duration in children has been previously reported in the literature Additionally, significant inverse associations between infant nighttime sleep and physical growth, even after controlling for potential confounders i.

However, this is the first study to suggest an association between RIWG, a risk factor for later childhood and adult obesity 3 , and insufficient sleep in infancy. This finding provides further evidence supporting the importance of adequate amounts of sleep for infants and the inclusion of infant sleep recommendations in future interventions for preventing the onset of RIWG in populations at risk for childhood obesity.

The lack of effect on infant growth outcomes apparent in the Delta Healthy Sprouts trial may be attributed to several factors including prevalence of socioeconomic disadvantage in this region, lack of intervention effect on maternal weight outcomes and cultural beliefs or traditions.

Additionally, significant differences between treatment arms were not found for either gestational weight gain or maternal weight loss in the postnatal period 26 , The lack of effect may be at least partly attributed to the tendency of African American women to evaluate their attractiveness independently of perceived weight 28 , and this behaviour may extend to weight perceptions of their children. However, several limitations bear mentioning.

Additionally, the sample size was small, which may have limited the ability to detect meaningful associations with infant growth outcomes. Difficulties with recruitment included low rates of referral by prenatal healthcare providers and most local WIC and health department nutritionists, relocation of a healthcare clinic to a smaller building that could not accommodate onsite recruitment by research staff, and competition for this population of pregnant women by other programs operating in the same area.

It is possible that the length of the lessons also may have adversely affected retention. In conclusion, as compared with the standard PAT curriculum, the diet and physical activity enhanced PATE curriculum was not effective at improving growth outcomes of infants born to this cohort of rural, Southern, primarily African American women.

Given the majority of infants experienced adverse weight outcomes in the first year of life, concerted efforts are needed to break the intergenerational cycle of obesity present in this region of the nation. All authors declare they have no conflicts of interest to report. All authors participated in the revising of this paper and have read and approved the final paper. The authors thank Debra Johnson and Donna Ransome for their research support, including reviewing an early version of this paper.

The views expressed are solely those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government. Thomson, J. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Obes Sci Pract v. Obes Sci Pract. Published online May Thomson , 1 M. Goodman , 1 L. Landry 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Thomson, Email: vog. Corresponding author. Email: vog. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Summary Objective Multicomponent lifestyle modification interventions designed for gestational and early postnatal periods may be key to preventing obesity in children. Conclusions As compared with a standard educational control curriculum, an educational curriculum enhanced with diet and physical activity components was not effective at improving infant growth outcomes.

Keywords: African American, home visiting, infant overweight, rapid infant weight gain. Participants and setting Recruitment occurred via distribution of flyers and brochures, and study staff on site at health clinics and medical facilities serving pregnant women and at health fairs. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Measures Anthropometric measures obtained on the infants included length and weight, which were measured in duplicate if the two measures agreed or in triplicate if the two measures did not agree.

Statistical analyses Statistical analyses were performed using SAS. Conflicts of Interest Statement All authors declare they have no conflicts of interest to report. Acknowledgements J. Notes Thomson, J. References 1. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, — The state of childhood obesity.

Accessed January 9,

Physical Growth of Infants and Children

Operations Center Staff Directory. Administration Org Chart. Instructional Services Org Chart. Public Information Logo and Guidelines. Technical Services Org Chart. Growth and Development. Overview pdf.

Infant and Newborn Development

Publisher: College of the Canyons. Attribution CC BY. The text is excellent for its content and presentation.

Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries pp Cite as. In this new century, the quality of life of infants and young children, as opposed to mere survival, is becoming increasingly important. Most developing countries have experienced dramatic decreases in their infant and under-five mortality rates over the last three decades. This in turn will have important consequences in adult life. Unable to display preview.

Physical growth refers to an increase in body size length or height and weight and in the size of organs. From birth to about age 1 or 2 years, children grow rapidly. After this time, growth slows. As growth slows, children need fewer calories and parents may notice a decrease in appetite.

When will my baby take his first step or say her first word?

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 - Мидж торопливо пересказала все, что они обнаружили с Бринкерхоффом. - Вы звонили Стратмору.

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