Communicable And Non Communicable Diseases Pdf
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- Global Public Health, Noncommunicable Diseases, and Ethics
- Global Handbook on Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion
- Global Public Health, Noncommunicable Diseases, and Ethics
A non-communicable disease NCD is a disease that is not transmissible directly from one person to another.
One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to reduce, by , the rise in global trends of major non-communicable diseases NCDs. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in NCD risk factors. No changes in age-standardised mean BMI in girls and boys from to were registered in eastern Europe, while an increase of up to 1.
Global Public Health, Noncommunicable Diseases, and Ethics
Rapid urbanization and industrialization drives the rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases NCDs worldwide that are characterized by uptake of unhealthy lifestyle such as tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. In India, the prevalence of various NCDs and its risk factors shows wide variations across geographic regions necessitating region-specific evidence for population-based prevention and control of NCDs. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of NCDs among adult population 18—69 years in the Puducherry district located in Southern part of India.
A total of individuals were selected from urban and rural areas 50 clusters in each through multi-stage cluster random sampling method. STEPS instrument was used to assess behavioral and physical measurements. Fasting blood sample was collected to estimate biochemical risk factors Diabetes, Hypercholesterolemia of NCDs.
Among men, alcohol use Nearly half of the population was physically inactive Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were present among one-third Tobacco and alcohol use was more common among men, whereas physical inactivity with obesity and hypercholesterolemia was higher among women. We found high prevalence of various NCDs and its risk factors among the adult population of Puducherry district. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: This study was conducted as part of a PhD project. Therefore, the dataset cannot be shared at this point of time. Funding: Dr Sitanshu Sekhar Kar received the grant for the study. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Non-Communicable Diseases NCDs are the leading cause for morbidity and mortality worldwide, with three-fourth of deaths occurring in the low and middle-income countries like India [ 1 ].
Currently, three out of the top five causes for morbidity and mortality in the country are NCDs [ 2 ]. Rising burden of NCDs is due to rapid urbanization and social development occurring in the country over the past two decades.
The change occurring in social structures transforms lifestyles of populations that are mainly characterized by increased adaptation of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use [ 1 ].
These modifiable risk factors precede the development of metabolic risk factors and then progress to NCDs in populations [ 3 ]. This progression when not intervened with prompt population-based health promotion interventions, causes a sizeable transition in the disease epidemiology of the population.
A recent study estimated epidemiological transition levels ETL across states, which is a ratio of all-age disability adjusted life years DALYs due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases versus those due to NCDs and injuries combined. The study revealed wide variations in ETL across states as well as higher prevalence of NCD burden among the affluent states compared to less developed ones [ 2 ].
The geographical variation in NCD prevalence also informs the prevailing varying levels of NCD risk factors across the states. This warrants state-specific estimates for NCDs and its determinants, to deal effectively with the rising burden. Puducherry is one of the highly urbanized union territories UT in the country [ 11 ].
However, no systematic NCD risk factors survey has been conducted in the area. Puducherry is one of the four districts of the union territory UT of Puducherry located along the eastern coast, of southern India. The population of Puducherry district is 0. The district has sex ratio of , life expectancy This survey was conducted in both urban and rural areas of Puducherry district. Prevention and control activities such as population-based screening for NCDs and its risk factors, diagnostics, treatment initiation and follow-up are rendered in adherence to the NPCDCS guidelines through a network of public healthcare facilities, and nine medical colleges, and private hospitals.
Multistage, stratified, geographically clustered sampling method was employed using Census data as the baseline. Three and two-staged sampling was done in urban and rural areas respectively. We included 50 clusters each from urban out of 90 wards and rural 62 revenue villages in the first sampling stage. In urban areas, one census enumeration block CEB was chosen randomly from each selected ward in the second stage. From each selected CEB and village, 36 and 16 households were recruited respectively using systematic random sampling in the final sampling stage.
One adult 18—69 years member residing in the household for at least past six months was interviewed using KISH method [ 16 ]. Members of the household who had cognitive and physical impairment to a level that hindered them from understanding the questions and responding back were excluded from the sampling frame for selection of an adult.
Risk factors were assessed in three steps. Behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruits and vegetables intake, were assessed in step one. Physical measurements for body mass index BMI and abdominal obesity were done in step two. Biochemical risk factors fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol were assessed in third step by collecting blood samples from alternate participants. In each CEB or village, the first household was chosen randomly and subsequently, the required number of households in the cluster was selected using systematic random sampling method.
Data were collected from an eligible household member by a trained investigator after obtaining informed written consent. All three survey steps were conducted at households. Non-response was considered when study participants were unavailable after two more visits were made at times convenient to them. All interviews were conducted by the first author after receiving adequate training in survey methodology. Demographic characteristics such as age, gender, residence, education, occupation including contact details were collected to begin with.
Current use of tobacco smoke and smokeless forms , alcohol quantity , and intake of fruits and vegetables quantity and frequency were collected subsequently. Showcards were used to describe physical activity type and intensity , standard drink alcohol and a serving of fruits and vegetables. Height, weight, waist circumference WC and blood pressure BP were measured by following standard guidelines [ 3 ].
Measurements were done using portable stadiometer and electronic weighing scale at nearest 0. SECA constant tape was used for waist measurement. Pregnant women were not subjected to physical measurements. All equipment was calibrated regularly before and during data collection. Two trained field investigators having previous experience in collecting blood samples were recruited for carrying out Step 3 of the survey.
They underwent training for three days that included an overview of all three steps, and procedure to be followed for collection and transportation of samples. Each participant was given a handout describing the need and purpose for overnight fasting 10—12 hours. Fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol were estimated using commercially available kits adapted to clinical chemistry autoanalyzer based on spectrophotometry Beckman Coulter Inc , Brea , California , USA.
Glucose oxidase peroxide and cholesterol oxidase peroxide were used for the estimation at nm. All information was collected in electronic version of the questionnaire loaded in the field data collection software ODK Collect version 1. Tobacco smoke or smokeless and alcohol use in last thirty days and one year respectively, was considered as current use. Men and women consumed at least six and four standard drinks respectively, in at least one occasion during last 30 days, were considered to have harmful use of alcohol.
Along with type of physical activity work, travel and leisure , intensity levels low, moderate and severe were also captured. Those had less than MET, — MET, and more than were classified to have low, moderate and high levels of physical activity, respectively. Behavioural assessment was based on self-report. Overweight 23 to Continuous variables such as age, quantity of tobacco sticks and alcohol use, and categorical variables such as prevalence of various risk factors tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, raised BP, diabetes etc.
The models were developed for each risk factor by keeping the risk factor as dependent variable and socio-demographic characteristics gender, age group, education, marital status, occupation as independent variables. Among the participants, mean SD age was Socio-demographic characteristics are provided in the Table 1. The mean CI of various behavioral risk factors and physical measurements are given in Table 2. Fruits and vegetables intake and physical activity were significantly higher among men.
The intake levels were significantly higher among urban population, whereas physical activity was significantly higher among rural population. BMI was significantly higher among women The prevalence of current tobacco and alcohol use were Alcohol use About half Nearly nine out of ten people Prevalence of obesity One-third DM was present in one-fourth Over one-third Socio-demographic determinants of various risk factors are given in Table 4.
Both these risk factors declined with increasing levels of education. Physical inactivity was significantly higher among urban population PR: 1. Hypertension PR: 0. Overweight and obesity also increased steadily across increasing education levels. The study revealed a marginal increase The increase in tobacco use was much pronounced among males On the other hand, tobacco use among women has shown a considerable decline 5. The surge in smoked tobacco in the district raises concerns, as Puducherry has shown a substantial decline in tobacco use during the last decade GATS 1 vs 2 [ 20 , 21 ].
Recent program initiatives such as formation of district-level coordination committee and field task force shall provide the necessary impetus for better planning, coordination, implementation and monitoring the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act COTPA violations in the district.
Evidence from low-and-middle income countries presenting similar prevalence rates as in this study, showed that despite exerting consistent tobacco control efforts, the countries have failed to control the tobacco menace over time, in terms of tobacco induced morbidity and mortality [ 22 ].
This observation points to the district tobacco control authorities to further strengthen the tobacco control policies and implementation in order to drive down the rising prevalence signaled from this study as well as its consequences. The observed prevalence was less compared to the neighbouring state of Tamilnadu Considering this, the alcohol prevalence observed in the study that is comparable to NFHS-4 finding indicates the rising levels of alcohol use in the district.
Global Handbook on Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion
Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Introduction to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
It argues that the complex nature of these conditions and of causality require a nuanced and context-specific picture in terms of understanding the social and economic patterning of NCDs and the implications for poor people. Within an overall consideration of health justice, these issues fall under two broad areas: firstly, prioritization and resource allocation; and secondly, questions of responsibility with respect to prevention measures. The chapter focuses on the tension between emphasizing individual-level action and a systems approach that pays attention to broader structural factors, global and national inequalities, health system drivers, and sociopolitical determinants of NCDs. Keywords: noncommunicable diseases , poverty , low- and middle-income countries , LMICs , justice , responsibility , resource allocation , prevention , public health ethics. This chapter reviews global issues in primary and secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases NCDs. Within an overall consideration of health justice, it reflects on two areas for ethical attention: questions of disease prioritization, and questions of individual responsibility. The World Health Organization WHO has been active for some time in pressing for greater concern, but other central players in international development, such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme, have also released key reports calling for action and assisted in raising the attention of governments to problematize the issue Reubi, Herrick, and Brown,
Policies addressing the major NCDs and their risk factors Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health pdf/letters/Non-communicable%
Global Public Health, Noncommunicable Diseases, and Ethics
Rapid urbanization and industrialization drives the rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases NCDs worldwide that are characterized by uptake of unhealthy lifestyle such as tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. In India, the prevalence of various NCDs and its risk factors shows wide variations across geographic regions necessitating region-specific evidence for population-based prevention and control of NCDs. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of NCDs among adult population 18—69 years in the Puducherry district located in Southern part of India. A total of individuals were selected from urban and rural areas 50 clusters in each through multi-stage cluster random sampling method.
Louis, St. Additional File 1 Download. Unwin, N.
A noncommunicable disease is a noninfectious health condition that cannot be spread from person to person. It also lasts for a long period of time. This is also known as a chronic disease. A combination of genetic, physiological, lifestyle, and environmental factors can cause these diseases. Some risk factors include:. Noncommunicable diseases kill around 40 million people each year.
One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to reduce, by , the rise in global trends of major non-communicable diseases NCDs. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in NCD risk factors. No changes in age-standardised mean BMI in girls and boys from to were registered in eastern Europe, while an increase of up to 1. In adults, prevalence of obesity increased from 3. Global diabetes prevalence increased from 4.
Diseases are classified as either communicable or noncommunicable. Communicable diseases are spread to other people and they are caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, or fungal infection. Noncommunicable diseases, also known as non-infectious diseases, are not transferred and are typically caused by heredity, deficiencies in nutrition or factors involving the environment. Some noncommunicable diseases include. Profiling the personal experiences of three people diagnosed with COPD, this video answers basic questions about the disease and its risk factors, and demonstrates how real people took steps to manage the disease and breathe easier. To understand COPD, it helps to understand how the lungs work. The air that you breathe goes down your windpipe into tubes in your lungs called bronchial tubes or airways.