Chemistry Of Terpenoids And Carotenoids Pdf
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Carotenoid is a group of pigments naturally present in vegetal raw materials that have biological properties. These pigments have been used mainly in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The carotenoid extraction occurs generally with vegetal oil and organic solvents, but supercritical technology is an alternative technique to the recovery of these compounds, presenting many advantages when compared to conventional process.
- Chemistry of terpenoids and carotenoids / G. Singh
- Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Regulation in Plants
Chemistry of terpenoids and carotenoids / G. Singh
Tetraterpenes are terpenes consisting of eight isoprene units and have the molecular formula C 40 H Phytoene is biosynthesized via the head-to-head condensation of two GGPP molecules. Carotenoids have important biological functions, with roles in light capture, antioxidative activity and protection against free radicals, synthesis of plant hormones and as structural components of the membranes. Aside their biological relevance, carotenoids are also high-value compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Carotenoids are biosynthesized by photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms; however, in photosynthetic organisms, they are essential components as accessory pigments for the light-harvesting reaction centers. This biochemistry article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Regulation in Plants
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Antonio J. E-mail: ajmelendez us. Carotenoids are widespread isoprenoids that intervene in actions ranging from the collection of light and photoprotection to the regulation of gene expression and communication within or between species, to mention only some examples. They are, therefore, much more than natural pigments, as they are versatile compounds that are eliciting increasing interest in different disciplines, such as plant science, agriculture, food science and technology, nutrition and health, among others. Although carotenoids in humans are found almost exclusively free, in foods they can be associated with other molecules, like sugars, proteins or fatty acids.
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Terpene , any of a class of hydrocarbons occurring widely in plants and animals and empirically regarded as built up from isoprene , a hydrocarbon consisting of five carbon atoms attached to eight hydrogen atoms C 5 H 8. The term is often extended to the terpenoids, which are oxygenated derivatives of these hydrocarbons. Biological formation of the terpenes occurs by the combination of two molecules of acetic acid to give mevalonic acid C 6 H 1 2 O 4 and conversion of the latter to isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which contains the five-carbon isoprene skeleton. Further transformations of the isopentenyl compound yield the true terpenes and the terpenoids. The true terpenes are usually grouped according to the number of isoprene C 5 H 8 units in the molecule: monoterpenes C 1 0 H 1 6 contain two such units; sesquiterpenes C 1 5 H 2 4 , three; diterpenes C 2 0 H 3 2 , four; triterpenes C 3 0 H 4 8 , six; and tetraterpenes C 4 0 H 6 4 , eight. Rubber and gutta-percha are polyterpenes in which 1,—5, isoprene units are joined in a long chain. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes are abundant in the essential oils of plants: turpentine contains several monoterpenes, and the rosin acids are diterpenes.
Carotenoids are lipophilic secondary metabolites derived from the isoprenoid pathway and are accumulated in most plant organs . They contribute to the red, yellow and orange colors of many fruits and flowers, and are a factor in attracting pollinators to flowers. Carotenoids can exert important physiological functions in a wide range of organisms, including plants and humans. They are essential components of the photosynthetic machinery, and play a critical role in preventing photooxidative damage . The importance of carotenoids for plant growth and development is evident since at least two major phytohormones, strigolactones and abscisic acid, are derived from carotenoid precursors .
The terpenoids , sometimes called isoprenoids , are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from the 5-carbon compound isoprene , and the isoprene polymers called terpenes. Most are multicyclic structures with oxygen-containing functional groups. Plant terpenoids are used for their aromatic qualities and play a role in traditional herbal remedies. Terpenoids contribute to the scent of eucalyptus , the flavors of cinnamon , cloves , and ginger , the yellow color in sunflowers , and the red color in tomatoes. The provitamin beta carotene is a terpene derivative called a carotenoid. The steroids and sterols in animals are biologically produced from terpenoid precursors. Sometimes terpenoids are added to proteins , e.