Benzene And Aromatic Compounds Pdf

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benzene and aromatic compounds pdf

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On the relations between aromaticity and substituent effect

Aromatic compounds, originally named because of their fragrant properties, are unsaturated hydrocarbon ring structures that exhibit special properties, including unusual stability, due to their aromaticity. They are often represented as resonance structures containing single and double bonds. However, the bonding is stronger than expected for a conjugated structure, and it is more accurately depicted as delocalized electron density shared between all the atoms in the ring. Aromatic compounds are generally nonpolar and immiscible with water. As they are often unreactive, they are useful as solvents for other nonpolar compounds. Due to their high ratio of carbon to hydrogen, aromatic compounds are characterized by a sooty yellow flame. The double bonds in aromatic compounds are less likely to participate in addition reactions than those found in typical alkenes.

Aromatic compound , any of a large class of unsaturated chemical compounds characterized by one or more planar rings of atoms joined by covalent bonds of two different kinds. The unique stability of these compounds is referred to as aromaticity. Although the term aromatic originally concerned odour , today its use in chemistry is restricted to compounds that have particular electronic, structural, or chemical properties. Aromaticity is often reflected in smaller than expected heats of combustion and hydrogenation and is associated with low reactivity. Benzene C 6 H 6 is the best-known aromatic compound and the parent to which numerous other aromatic compounds are related.

Aromatic Substitution Reactions. The remarkable stability of the unsaturated hydrocarbon benzene has been discussed in an earlier section. The chemical reactivity of benzene contrasts with that of the alkenes in that substitution reactions occur in preference to addition reactions, as illustrated in the following diagram some comparable reactions of cyclohexene are shown in the green box. A demonstration of bromine substitution and addition reactions is helpful at this point, and a virtual demonstration may be initiated by clicking here. Many other substitution reactions of benzene have been observed, the five most useful are listed below chlorination and bromination are the most common halogenation reactions. Since the reagents and conditions employed in these reactions are electrophilic, these reactions are commonly referred to as Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution.

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Aromatic compounds can be drawn with alternating single and double bonds, each atom in the ring must have a p-orbital available. There are common benzene derivative names that are used by IUPAC such as toluene, phenol, benzoic acid and benzaldehyde. A benzene group that is named as a substituent is called phenyl. A benzene with a CH 2 as a substituent group is called benzyl. Aromatic molecules must have all ring atoms in the same plane to allow delocalization of the pi electrons. Heats of hydrogenation can be used to show the special stability of benzene compared to what would be expected for a theoretical cyclohexatriene molecule. If not, they will remain in hybrid orbitals.

When a benzene ring has two substituent groups, each exerts an influence on subsequent substitution reactions. The activation or deactivation of the ring can be predicted more or less by the sum of the individual effects of these substituents. The site at which a new substituent is introduced depends on the orientation of the existing groups and their individual directing effects. We can identify two general behavior categories, as shown in the following table. Thus, the groups may be oriented in such a manner that their directing influences act in concert, reinforcing the outcome; or are opposed antagonistic to each other. Note that the orientations in each category change depending on whether the groups have similar or opposite individual directing effects.


Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon. Aromatic compounds have unusual stability that goes far beyond what is predicted by simple resonance.


Synthesis (7): Reaction Map of Benzene and Related Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic Reactions and Synthesis Practice. The list comes to about 25, including. Not included are the Heck, Suzuki and other cross-coupling reactions, which you can read about here. File: PNG.

Orbitals with the same energy are described as degenerate orbitals. Among the many distinctive features of benzene , its aromaticity is the major contributor to why it is so unreactive. This section will try to clarify the theory of aromaticity and why aromaticity gives unique qualities that make these conjugated alkenes inert to compounds such as Br 2 and even hydrochloric acid. It will also go into detail about the unusually large resonance energy due to the six conjugated carbons of benzene. The delocalization of the p-orbital carbons on the sp 2 hybridized carbons is what gives the aromatic qualities of benzene.

In chemistry , aromaticity is a property of cyclic ring-shaped , planar flat structures with pi bonds in resonance those containing delocalized electrons that gives increased stability compared to other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. Aromatic rings are very stable and do not break apart easily. Organic compounds that are not aromatic are classified as aliphatic compounds —they might be cyclic , but only aromatic rings have enhanced stability.

Synthesis (7): Reaction Map of Benzene and Related Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic compounds are ring structures with unusual stability due to delocalized pi electron density that is shared between all of the carbon atoms in the ring. There are a number of historically common names for aromatic structures. For example, methylbenzene is often referred to as toluene, and dimethylbenzene is often called xylene.

Aromatic compound

The quantitative description of aromaticity is based on energetic, geometric e. The substituent effect can be described using either traditional Hammett-type substituent constants or characteristics based on quantum-chemistry. For this purpose, the energies of properly designed homodesmotic reactions and electron density distribution are used.

Benzene C 6 H 6 , simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon and parent compound of numerous important aromatic compounds. Benzene is a colourless liquid with a characteristic odour and is primarily used in the production of polystyrene. It is highly toxic and is a known carcinogen ; exposure to it may cause leukemia. As a result, there are strict controls on benzene emissions. Benzene was first discovered by the English scientist Michael Faraday in in illuminating gas. In German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich heated benzoic acid with lime and produced benzene.


Aromatic compounds have substantial resonance stabilization. ☟ Benzene is aromatic: it is planar, cyclic, has a p orbital at every carbon, and 6 π electrons (n=​1).


Originally fragrant substances were called aromatic compounds. Today, however, the term Arene is reserved for the chemical substances whose molecules are flat planar and ring-shaped cyclic and have conjugated double bonds. And: aromaticity - an attribute of aromatic compounds - is a chemical property associated with the extra stability of certain types of pi-systems. Benzene is considered a model compound of aromatics, consisting of a ring of 6 carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. Expand can be an aromatic ring with substitution reactions.

Aromatic compounds are those chemical compounds most commonly organic that contain one or more rings with pi electrons delocalized all the way around them. In contrast to compounds that exhibit aromaticity , aliphatic compounds lack this delocalization. The term "aromatic" was assigned before the physical mechanism determining aromaticity was discovered, and referred simply to the fact that many such compounds have a sweet or pleasant odour; however, not all aromatic compounds have a sweet odour, and not all compounds with a sweet odour are aromatic. Aromatic hydrocarbons , or arenes , are aromatic organic compounds containing solely carbon and hydrogen atoms. The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is called a "benzene ring", after the simple aromatic compound benzene , or a phenyl group when part of a larger compound.

15.3: Structure and Stability of Benzene

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1 Comments

  1. Burnell B. 11.02.2021 at 15:02

    benzene, that exhibit special stability due to resonance delocalization of π-​electrons. Page 4. 4. 7. Naming aromatic compounds: (arenes) large number on.