Introduction To Computer Security Michael T Goodrich And Roberto Tamassia Pdf
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- Introduction to Computer Security
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- Introduction to Computer Security
- Introduction to Computer Security - Pearson New International 1st Edition; Roberto Tamassia
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Introduction to Computer Security
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6—10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.
All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. Download www. Introduction Michael T. Physical Security Michael T. Operating Systems Security Michael T. Malware Download Michael T. Network Security I Michael T. Web Security Michael T. Cryptography Michael T. Distributed-Applications Security Michael T.
Bibliography Michael T. Introduction Contents 1 Fundamental Concepts 1. Goodrich, Roberto Tamassia. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc. Published by Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Introduction 1 Fundamental Concepts In this chapter, we introduce several fundamental concepts in computer security. Topics range from theoretical cryptographic primitives, such as digital signatures, to practical usability issues, such as social engineering.
Existing computer systems may contain legacy features of earlier ver- sions dating back to bygone eras, such as when the Internet was the sole domain of academic researchers and military labs. For instance, assump- tions of trust and lack of malicious behavior among network-connected machines, which may have been justifiable in the early eighties, are surpris- ingly still present in the way the Internet operates today.
Such assumptions have led to the growth of Internet-based crime. An important aspect of computer security is the identification of vulner- abilities in computer systems, which can, for instance, allow a malicious user to gain access to private data and even assume full control of a machine. Vulnerabilities enable a variety of attacks. Analysis of these attacks can determine the severity of damage that can be inflicted and the likelihood that the attack can be further replicated.
Actions that need to be taken to defend against attacks include identifying compromised Download machines, removing the malicious code, and patching systems to eliminate the vulnerability. In order to have a secure computer system, sound models are a first www. In particular, it is important to define the security properties that must be assured, anticipate the types of attacks that could be launched, and develop specific defenses. The design should also take into account usability issues.
Indeed, security measures that are difficult to understand and inconvenient to follow will likely lead to failure of adoption. Next, the hardware and software implementation of a system needs to be rigorously tested to detect programming errors that introduce vulnerabilities.
Once the system is deployed, procedures should be put in place to monitor the behavior of the system, detect security breaches, and react to them. Finally, security-related patches to the system must be applied as soon as they become available. Computer security concepts often are better understood by looking at issues in a broader context. For this reason, this text also includes discussions of the security of various physical and real-world systems, including locks, ATM machines, and passenger screening at airports.
Introduction 1. Spam, phishing, and computer viruses are becoming multibillion-dollar problems, as is identity theft, which poses a serious threat to the personal finances and credit ratings of users, and creates liabilities for corporations.
Thus, there is a growing need for broader knowledge of computer security in society as well as increased expertise among information technology pro- fessionals. Society needs more security-educated computer professionals, who can successfully defend against and prevent computer attacks, as well as security-educated computer users, who can safely manage their own information and the systems they use. One of the first things we need to do in a text on computer security is to define our concepts and terms.
Classically, information security has been defined in terms of the acronym C. See Figure 1. Introduction Confidentiality In the context of computer security, confidentiality is the avoidance of the unauthorized disclosure of information. That is, confidentiality involves the protection of data, providing access for those who are allowed to see it while disallowing others from learning anything about its content. Keeping information secret is often at the heart of information security, and this concept, in fact, predates computers.
For example, in the first recorded use of cryptography, Julius Caesar communicated commands to his generals using a simple cipher. This cipher can be easily broken, making it an inappropriate tool for achieving confidentiality today. Nowadays, achieving confidentiality is more of a challenge. Computers are everywhere, and each one is capable of performing operations that could compromise confidentiality.
With all of these threats to the confiden- tiality of information, computer security researchers and system designers have come up with a number of tools for protecting sensitive information. To be secure, an encryption scheme should make it extremely difficult for someone to www.
This determination can be done in a number of different ways, but it is usually based on a combination of something the person has like a smart card or a radio key fob storing secret keys , something the person knows like a password , and something the person is like a human with a fingerprint.
The concept of authenti- cation is schematically illustrated in Figure 2. Such authoriza- tions should prevent an attacker from tricking the system into letting him have access to protected resources.
Such barriers include locks on cabinets and doors, the placement of computers in windowless www. When we visit a web page that asks for our credit card number and our Internet browser shows a little lock icon in the corner, there is a lot that has gone on in the background to help ensure the confidentiality of our credit card number.
In fact, a number of tools have probably been brought to bear here. Our browser begins the process by performing an authentication procedure to verify that the web site we are connecting to is indeed who it says it is. While this is going on, the web site might itself be checking that our browser is authentic and that we have the appropriate authorizations to access this web page according to its access control policy.
Our browser then asks the web site for an encryption key to encrypt our credit card, which it then uses so that it only sends our credit card information in encrypted form.
Finally, once our credit card number reaches the server that is providing this web site, the data center where 5. Introduction the server is located should have appropriate levels of physical security, access policies, and authorization and authentication mechanisms to keep our credit card number safe.
We discuss these topics in some detail in this text. There are a number of real demonstrated risks to physical eavesdropp- ing. For example, researchers have shown that one can determine what someone is typing just by listening to a recording of their key strokes.
Like- wise, experiments show that it is possible to reconstruct the image of a computer screen either by monitoring its electromagnetic radiation or even radiation or even from a video of a blank wall that the screen is shining on. Thus, physical security is an information security concept that should not be taken for granted.
Integrity Another important aspect of information security is integrity, which is the property that information has not be altered in an unauthorized way. The importance of integrity is often demonstrated to school children in the Telephone game. Each child in the circle then waits to listen to the message from his or her neighbor on the left.
Once a child has received the message, he or she then whispers this same message to their neighbor on the right. This message passing process continues until the message goes full circle and www. There are a number of ways that data integrity can be compromised in computer systems and networks, and these compromises can be benign or malicious. For example, a benign compromise might come from a storage device being hit with a stray cosmic ray that flips a bit in an important file, or a disk drive might simply crash, completely destroying some of its files.
A malicious compromise might come from a computer virus that infects our system and deliberately changes some the files of our operating system, so that our computer then works to replicate the virus and send it to other computers.
Thus, it is important that computer systems provide tools to support data integrity. Introduction The previously mentioned tools for protecting the confidentiality of information, denying access to data to users without appropriate access rights, also help prevent data from being modified in the first place.
This archiving is done so that data files can be restored should they ever be altered in an unauthorized or unintended way. A checksum function depends on the entire contents of a file and is designed in a way that even a small change to the input file such as flipping a single bit is highly likely to result in a different output value.
Checksums are like trip-wires—they are used to detect when a breach to data integrity has occurred. These codes are typically applied to small units of storage e. Download These tools for achieving data integrity all possess a common trait—they use redundancy. That is, they involve the replication of some information content or functions of the data so that we can detect and sometimes even correct breaches in data integrity.
We also need to protect the metadata for each data file, which are attributes of the file or information about access to the file that are not strictly a part of its content. Examples of metadata include the user who is the owner of the file, the last user who has modified the file, the last user who has read the file, the dates and times when the file was created and last modified and accessed, the name and location of the file in the file system, and the list of users or groups who can read or write the file.
Thus, changing any metadata of a file should be considered a violation of its integrity. For example, a computer intruder might not actually modify the content of any user files in a system he has infiltrated, but he may nevertheless be modifying metadata, such as access time stamps, by looking at our files and thereby compromising their confidentiality if they are not encrypted.
Indeed, if our system has integrity checks in place for this type of metadata, it may be able to detect an intrusion that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. Introduction Availability Besides confidentiality and integrity, another important property of infor- mation security is availability, which is the property that information is accessible and modifiable in a timely fashion by those authorized to do so.
Information that is locked in a cast-iron safe high on a Tibetan mountain and guarded round the clock by a devoted army of ninjas may be con- sidered safe, but it is not practically secure from an information security perspective if it takes us weeks or months to reach it. Indeed, the quality of some information is directly associated with how available it is.
For example, stock quotes are most useful when they are fresh. Also, imagine the damage that could be caused if someone stole our credit card and it took weeks before our credit card company could notify anyone, because its list of stolen numbers was unavailable to merchants. Such protections can include buildings housing critical computer systems to be constructed to withstand storms, earthquakes, and bomb blasts, and outfitted www. For example, redundant arrays of inexpensive disks RAID use storage redundancies to keep data available to their clients.
For instance, a thief who steals lots of credit cards might wish to attack the availability of the list of stolen credit cards that is maintained and broadcast by a major credit card company. Thus, availability forms the third leg of support for the vital C. These concepts can likewise be characterized by a three-letter acronym, A. See Figure 3.
Introduction To Computer Security Goodrich PDF Free Download
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6—10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. Introduction Michael T. Physical Security Michael T. Operating Systems Security Michael T.
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Information Security Handbook. An Introduction to Computer Security: stored on computer systems, computer security can help protect Introduction to computer Security-Matt Bishop. Introduction to Computer Security - download at 4shared. What is Computer Security? What are the consequences for security violations? Risk to security and integrity of personal or. Peer lopakajasa.
Introduction to Computer Security
The NSA. All rights reserved. Module Title Information Security 2. Module Level - Forth Stage 4.
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Introduction to Computer Security - Pearson New International 1st Edition; Roberto Tamassia
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