Biotic And Abiotic Factors Of Environment Pdf

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Environmental factor

Many forces influence the communities of living organisms present in different parts of the biosphere all of the parts of Earth inhabited by life. The biosphere extends into the atmosphere several kilometers above Earth and into the depths of the oceans. Despite its apparent vastness to an individual human, the biosphere occupies only a minute space when compared to the known universe.

Many abiotic forces influence where life can exist and the types of organisms found in different parts of the biosphere. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the abiotic factors that affect their distribution. Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation. As these abiotic factors change, the composition of plant and animal communities also changes.

For example, if you were to begin a journey at the equator and walk north, you would notice gradual changes in plant communities. At the beginning of your journey, you would see tropical wet forests with broad-leaved evergreen trees, which are characteristic of plant communities found near the equator.

As you continued to travel north, you would see these broad-leaved evergreen plants eventually give rise to seasonally dry forests with scattered trees.

You would also begin to notice changes in temperature and moisture. At about 30 degrees north, these forests would give way to deserts, which are characterized by low precipitation. Moving farther north, you would see that deserts are replaced by grasslands or prairies.

Eventually, grasslands are replaced by deciduous temperate forests. These deciduous forests give way to the boreal forests found in the subarctic, the area south of the Arctic Circle. Finally, you would reach the Arctic tundra, which is found at the most northern latitudes. This trek north reveals gradual changes in both climate and the types of organisms that have adapted to environmental factors associated with ecosystems found at different latitudes.

However, different ecosystems exist at the same latitude due in part to abiotic factors such as jet streams, the Gulf Stream, and ocean currents. If you were to hike up a mountain, the changes you would see in the vegetation would parallel those as you move to higher latitudes.

Ecologists who study biogeography examine patterns of species distribution. No species exists everywhere; for example, the Venus flytrap is endemic to a small area in North and South Carolina. An endemic species is one which is naturally found only in a specific geographic area that is usually restricted in size. Other species are generalists: species which live in a wide variety of geographic areas; the raccoon, for example, is native to most of North and Central America. Species distribution patterns are based on biotic and abiotic factors and their influences during the very long periods of time required for species evolution; therefore, early studies of biogeography were closely linked to the emergence of evolutionary thinking in the eighteenth century.

Some of the most distinctive assemblages of plants and animals occur in regions that have been physically separated for millions of years by geographic barriers. Biologists estimate that Australia, for example, has between , and , species of plants and animals. Australia is home to many endemic species. The a wallaby Wallabia bicolor , a medium-sized member of the kangaroo family, is a pouched mammal, or marsupial.

The b echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus is an egg-laying mammal. Sometimes ecologists discover unique patterns of species distribution by determining where species are not found. Hawaii, for example, has no native land species of reptiles or amphibians, and has only one native terrestrial mammal, the hoary bat. Most of New Guinea, as another example, lacks placental mammals.

Check out this video to observe a platypus swimming in its natural habitat in New South Wales, Australia. Note that this video has no narration. Plants can be endemic or generalists: endemic plants are found only on specific regions of the Earth, while generalists are found on many regions.

Isolated land masses—such as Australia, Hawaii, and Madagascar—often have large numbers of endemic plant species. Some of these plants are endangered due to human activity. The forest gardenia Gardenia brighamii , for instance, is endemic to Hawaii; only an estimated 15—20 trees are thought to exist. The spring beauty is an ephemeral spring plant that flowers early in the spring to avoid competing with larger forest trees for sunlight.

Energy from the sun is captured by green plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and photosynthetic protists. These organisms convert solar energy into the chemical energy needed by all living things. Light availability can be an important force directly affecting the evolution of adaptations in photosynthesizers.

For instance, plants in the understory of a temperate forest are shaded when the trees above them in the canopy completely leaf out in the late spring. Not surprisingly, understory plants have adaptations to successfully capture available light. These spring flowers achieve much of their growth and finish their life cycle reproduce early in the season before the trees in the canopy develop leaves. In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of light may be limited because sunlight is absorbed by water, plants, suspended particles, and resident microorganisms.

Toward the bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean, there is a zone that light cannot reach. Photosynthesis cannot take place there and, as a result, a number of adaptations have evolved that enable living things to survive without light. For instance, aquatic plants have photosynthetic tissue near the surface of the water; for example, think of the broad, floating leaves of a water lily—water lilies cannot survive without light.

In environments such as hydrothermal vents, some bacteria extract energy from inorganic chemicals because there is no light for photosynthesis. Ocean upwelling is an important process that recycles nutrients and energy in the ocean. As wind green arrows pushes offshore, it causes water from the ocean bottom red arrows to move to the surface, bringing up nutrients from the ocean depths.

The availability of nutrients in aquatic systems is also an important aspect of energy or photosynthesis. Many organisms sink to the bottom of the ocean when they die in the open water; when this occurs, the energy found in that living organism is sequestered for some time unless ocean upwelling occurs.

As the wind pushes ocean waters offshore, water from the bottom of the ocean moves up to replace this water. As a result, the nutrients once contained in dead organisms become available for reuse by other living organisms. In freshwater systems, the recycling of nutrients occurs in response to air temperature changes.

The nutrients at the bottom of lakes are recycled twice each year: in the spring and fall turnover. The spring and fall turnover is a seasonal process that recycles nutrients and oxygen from the bottom of a freshwater ecosystem to the top of a body of water. These turnovers are caused by the formation of a thermocline : a layer of water with a temperature that is significantly different from that of the surrounding layers. In wintertime, the surface of lakes found in many northern regions is frozen.

The deepest water is oxygen poor because the decomposition of organic material at the bottom of the lake uses up available oxygen that cannot be replaced by means of oxygen diffusion into the water due to the surface ice layer.

The spring and fall turnovers are important processes in freshwater lakes that act to move the nutrients and oxygen at the bottom of deep lakes to the top. Surface water temperature changes as the seasons progress, and denser water sinks. How might turnover in tropical lakes differ from turnover in lakes that exist in temperate regions?

In springtime, air temperatures increase and surface ice melts. The water at the bottom of the lake is then displaced by the heavier surface water and, thus, rises to the top. As that water rises to the top, the sediments and nutrients from the lake bottom are brought along with it. During the summer months, the lake water stratifies, or forms layers of temperature, with the warmest water at the lake surface.

The oxygen-rich water at the surface of the lake then moves to the bottom of the lake, while the nutrients at the bottom of the lake rise to the surface. During the winter, the oxygen at the bottom of the lake is used by decomposers and other organisms requiring oxygen, such as fish. This colorful hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, located in Midway Geyser Basin, is the largest hot spring in the United States and the third largest in the world.

Its rich color is the result of thermophilic organisms living along the edges of the hot spring,. Temperature affects the physiology of living things as well as the density and state of water. Enzymes are most efficient within a narrow and specific range of temperatures; enzyme degradation can occur at higher temperatures.

Therefore, organisms either must maintain an internal temperature or they must inhabit an environment that will keep the body within a temperature range that supports metabolism. Some animals have adapted to enable their bodies to survive significant temperature fluctuations, such as seen in hibernation or reptilian torpor. Similarly, some bacteria are adapted to surviving in extremely hot temperatures such as geysers.

Such bacteria are examples of extremophiles: organisms that thrive in extreme environments. Temperature can limit the distribution of living things. Animals faced with temperature fluctuations may respond with adaptations, such as migration, in order to survive. Migration, the movement from one place to another, is an adaptation found in many animals, including many that inhabit seasonally cold climates.

Migration solves problems related to temperature, locating food, and finding a mate. In migration, for instance, the Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea makes a 40, km 24, mi round trip flight each year between its feeding grounds in the southern hemisphere and its breeding grounds in the Arctic Ocean.

Monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus live in the eastern United States in the warmer months and migrate to Mexico and the southern United States in the wintertime. Some species of mammals also make migratory forays. Reindeer Rangifer tarandus travel about 5, km 3, mi each year to find food. Amphibians and reptiles are more limited in their distribution because they lack migratory ability. Not all animals that can migrate do so: migration carries risk and comes at a high energy cost.

Chipmunks hibernate for the winter, but they come out of sleep every few days to eat. Some animals hibernate or estivate to survive hostile temperatures. Hibernation enables animals to survive cold conditions, and estivation allows animals to survive the hostile conditions of a hot, dry climate.

Animals that hibernate or estivate enter a state known as torpor: a condition in which their metabolic rate is significantly lowered. This enables the animal to wait until its environment better supports its survival. Temperature and moisture are important influences on plant production primary productivity and the amount of organic matter available as food net primary productivity.

Net primary productivity is an estimation of all of the organic matter available as food; it is calculated as the total amount of carbon fixed per year minus the amount that is oxidized during cellular respiration.

In terrestrial environments, net primary productivity is estimated by measuring the aboveground biomass per unit area, which is the total mass of living plants, excluding roots. This means that a large percentage of plant biomass which exists underground is not included in this measurement.

Net primary productivity is an important variable when considering differences in biomes.

Understanding the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on sources of aquatic environmental DNA

Biotic components , or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens , and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs a proper amount of energy and nutrition to function healthily. Nearly all species are influenced by biotic factors in one way or another. If the number of predators was to increase, the entire food chain would be affected as any prey falling below that specified predator in the food chain will become prey.

Many forces influence the communities of living organisms present in different parts of the biosphere all of the parts of Earth inhabited by life. The biosphere extends into the atmosphere several kilometers above Earth and into the depths of the oceans. Despite its apparent vastness to an individual human, the biosphere occupies only a minute space when compared to the known universe. Many abiotic forces influence where life can exist and the types of organisms found in different parts of the biosphere. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the abiotic factors that affect their distribution. Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation. As these abiotic factors change, the composition of plant and animal communities also changes.

Understanding the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on sources of aquatic environmental DNA

Biotic and abiotic factors are increasingly acknowledged to synergistically shape broad-scale species distributions. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting species distributions is unclear. In particular, biotic factors, such as predation and vegetation, including those resulting from anthropogenic land-use change, are underrepresented in species distribution modeling, but could improve model predictions. Using generalized linear models and model selection techniques, we used estimates of population density of wild pigs Sus scrofa from 5 continents to evaluate the relative importance, magnitude, and direction of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting population density of an invasive large mammal with a global distribution. Incorporating diverse biotic factors, including agriculture, vegetation cover, and large carnivore richness, into species distribution modeling substantially improved model fit and predictions.

An environmental factor , ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms. Biotic factors would include the availability of food organisms and the presence of biological specificity , competitors , predators , and parasites. An organism's genotype e.

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Biotic component

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Biotic and abiotic factors are increasingly acknowledged to synergistically shape broad-scale species distributions. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting species distributions is unclear.

An environmental factor , ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms. Biotic factors would include the availability of food organisms and the presence of biological specificity , competitors , predators , and parasites. An organism's genotype e.


Introduction In ecology and biology, abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment which affect ecosystems. Biotic describes​.


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Avi Bar-Massada, Volker C. Radeloff, Susan I. The wildland—urban interface WUI is the area in which human settlements adjoin or intermix with ecosystems. Although research on the WUI has been focused on wildfire risk to settlements, we argue here that there is a need to quantify the extent of areas in which human settlements interact with adjoining ecosystems, regardless of their ability to support fire spread. Besides wildfires, human settlements affect neighboring ecosystems through biotic processes, including exotic species introduction, wildlife subsidization, disease transfer, landcover conversion, fragmentation, and habitat loss.

Biotic component

Metrics details. Ticks are increasingly acknowledged as significant vectors for a wide array of pathogens in urban environments with reports of abundant tick populations in recreational areas. The study aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors which impact the ecology of hard ticks in urban and peri-urban habitats in Romania.

Сьюзан посмотрела на корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, видневшийся справа. Шум генераторов, расположенных восемью этажами ниже, звучал сегодня в ее ушах необычайно зловеще. Сьюзан не любила бывать в шифровалке в неурочные часы, поскольку в таких случаях неизменно чувствовала себя запертой в клетке с гигантским зверем из научно-фантастического романа. Она ускорила шаги, чтобы побыстрее оказаться в кабинете шефа.

 - Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути. Постарайтесь пройти по нему до конца. Сьюзан вздохнула: - Программа принимает ключ только в цифровой форме. Мне кажется, что тут содержится некий намек на то, что это за цифра.

Understanding the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on sources of aquatic environmental DNA

Сьюзан потеряла дар речи. Он пристально посмотрел на нее и постучал ладонью по сиденью соседнего стула. - Садись, Сьюзан. Я должен тебе кое-что сказать.

 Но это же абсурд, - не согласилась Сьюзан.  - Ни один из новых шифрованных файлов нельзя вскрыть без ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть.

1 Comments

  1. Evelyn A. 09.02.2021 at 07:21

    Analysis of environmental DNA eDNA offers an unprecedented ability to accurately survey biodiversity from aquatic ecosystems.