Measurement Of Phase And Frequency Using Cro Pdf

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Oscilloscope How To

Project Mentor: Prof. CRO is a basic instrument employed for the study of several types of waveforms. It can measure various quantities such as peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse-width, delay time, rise time, and fall time. It comprises of a cathode-ray tube CRT , and input circuitry for focusing and amplification. In this graduated the topic of his research is the oscillations of elastic strings.

He worked as assistant Professor at Wurzburg University. Karl Braun demonstrated the model of first oscilloscope in , while working on the high frequency AC current. Therm-ionic emission:. It is also known as thermal electron emission. In this phenomenon the charge particle are emitted by the filament when it is heated by supplying a high negative voltage. Power requiremen ts:. There are two power supplies, a negative High Voltage HV supply which is required for filament and a positive Low Voltage LV supply for other circuitry then filament.

Cathode ray oscilloscope consists o f:. Vertical amplifier,. Horizontal amplifier,. Trigger circuit,. Sweep generator,. Power supply. D epicting the cathode ray tube which emits electrons from the filament cathode. The emitted electrons is then accelerated towards the screen and strikes on the fluorescent screen, due to its fluorescent properties it glow s when electron strikes on it. The amplitude and frequency of the signal displayed on the screen depends on the voltages on vertical and horizontal deflection plates respectively.

The front panel of cathode ray oscilloscope comprises of many measurement knob by which an experimenter can shift the wave form according to need of measuring parameter. Common display control includes:. An intensity control is used to adjust the brightness of the waveform. As the sweep speed is increased, there is a need to increase the intensity level. A focus control is used to adjust the sharpness of the waveform. A trace control is used to rotate the trace on the CRO screen.

A calibration point is used to calibrate the CRO. It gives a steady square wave at a particular set frequency and voltage. It allows the accurate scaling of the trace. The standard calibration signal is 0V-2V at 1KHz. Vertical controls are used to position and scale the wave form vertically. Variable: Provides continuously variable voltage sensitivity. Calibrated position is fully clockwise. Position: Controls horizontal position of trace on screen.

Vertical Position knob: To move the trace up or down the on the screen. Horizontal controls are used to position and scale the wave form horizontally. Horizontal Variable: Controls the attenuation reduction of signal applied to horizontal amplifier through External Horizontal connector. The trigger selects the timing of the beginning of the horizontal sweep.

Slope: Selects whether triggering occurs on a rising or falling edge of trigger signal. Level: Selects the voltage point on the triggering signal at which sweep is triggered. It also allows automatic auto triggering of allows sweep to run free free run.

Coupling is used to connect an electrical signal from one circuit to another. When the input coupling is the connection from circuit to the oscilloscope. The coupling can be set to DC, A C. T he oscilloscope has a capability to display both channel signals on the screen at the same time. It is usually used to measure phase difference between two signals. Multiple channels are displayed using either an alternate or chop mode.

Chop mode causes the oscilloscope to draw small parts of each signal back and forth between them, the switching rate is too fast so that the waveform looks like a continuous signal. The objective of observing a signal on the oscilloscope screen is to make voltage and time measurements. These measurements may be helpful in understanding the behavior of a circuit component, or the circuit itself, depending on what has to be measure. The oscilloscope screen consists of the grids which can be external or internal to the screen of CRO, which divides both the horizontal axis voltage and the vertical axis time into divisions which will be helpful in making the measurements.

Measurement of peak-to-peak voltage and peak voltage :. To measure the ac. The input ac. The vertical height L i. From this we get the peak voltage Vo. The rms voltage Vrms is equal to.

This rms voltage Vrms is verified with rms voltage value, measured by the multimeter. The trace horizontal line is adjusted such that it lie on the X-axis of the screen. The d. The shift of trace from the horizontal line occurs which gives the measure of the magnitude of the d. Using time-period:. Suppose that the time period of the input signal is T. As we know frequency is the reciprocal of time period.

Using Lissajous figure:. This is easily done on an oscilloscope in XY mode. The signal whose frequency to be measured is given on vertical plate and signal whose frequency is given to horizontal plate. Now the known frequency is adjusted such that a Lissajous pattern can be obtained, which depends on the ratio of the two frequencies.

Let f y be the frequency of unknown signal applied at vertical plate and f x be the frequency of known signal applied at horizontal plate. Then tangents are drawn on horizontal and vertical side of the Lissajous pattern, which gives the measure of:. If two or more signals are being monitored simultaneously, a time delay may occur between the signals that is one signal may lead the other or vice-verse , called as phase difference.

Two waves that have the same frequency, have a phase difference that is constant independent of t. When the phase difference is zero, the waves are said to be in phase with each other. Otherwise, they are out of phase with each other.

If the peak amplitudes of two anti-phase waves are equal, their sum is zero at all values of time, t. The phase difference is expressed in terms of radians or degrees. In Dual Mode , the phase difference can be calculated as follows it depicting the two signals having the same frequency:. The phase difference between the signals can also be determined in XY mode of the dual slope oscilloscope. In the XY mode, the x-axis data is taken on one channel, y-axis data is taken on the other.

In that way, Channel I is related with Channel II which is presented by means of graph, so that the variation of a signal with respect to another can be observed.

In XY mode, the two signals having a constant phase difference. The wave shape analysis,measurement of frequency and voltage peak to peak at different ac inputs. Measurement of phase difference between two signals using dual beam CRO. Measurement of frequency using Lissajous figures. To study the series and parallel LCR circuit and plot the resonance curve at the constant frequency.

Aim: To determine the frequency of an unknown signal using Lissajous figure. Formula used:. Lissajous figure:. Two sinusoidal inputs are applied to the oscilloscope in X-Y mode and the relationship between the signals is obtained as a Lissajous figure. To generate a Lissajous pattern two different signals are applied to the vertical and horizontal inputs of the CRO.

Earlier this technique used to measure frequencies before the frequency meter were discover. A signal generally sine wave of unknown frequency was applied to horizontal input and a frequency whose value is known applied to the vertical input of CRO. The pattern observed was depend on the ratio of the two frequencies applied to the vertical and horizontal inputs. Two signal generators was used, consider the first generator as the standard frequency source where as frequency from the second function generator is consider as unknown.

Set the frequency of generator one to 1 kHz, vary the frequency of second function generator until a stable Lissajous pattern is displayed to the screen of CRO. Trace the pattern, record the number of horizontal and vertical tangents and frequency of second function generator. Repeat the procedure for unknown frequencies it will give different Lissajous pattern. O bservation table:.

CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO)

CRO is a very versatile instrument in laboratory for measurement of voltage, current, frequency and phase angle of any electrical quantity. At point A in time, the voltage is zero so the spot remains undeflected at centre point of the screen. At point B in time, voltage V h is maximum positive so the spot is at the extreme right end on the screen. At point C in time, once again the voltage is zero so the spot comes back to the central position on the screen. At point D in time, the voltage is maximum negative and so the spot is at the extreme left end on the screen.


by an assembly called an electron gun located in the neck of 4. Measurement of Phase Example: Measurement of Frequency and a. c. voltage Using a CRO​.


CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO)

Phase difference can be measured on an oscilloscope by determining the time delay between two waveforms along with their period. All periodic signals can be described in terms of amplitude and phase. We all learned that in basic circuit theory.

Measure phase difference with an oscilloscope

Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

The CRO stands for a cathode ray oscilloscope. It is typically divided into four sections which are display, vertical controllers, horizontal controllers, and Triggers. Most of the oscilloscopes are used the probes and they are used for the input of any instrument. We can analyze the waveform by plotting amplitude along with the x-axis and y-axis. The applications of CRO are mainly involved in the radio, TV receivers, also in laboratory work involving research and design. In modern electronics, the CRO plays an important role in the electronic circuits.

Project Mentor: Prof. CRO is a basic instrument employed for the study of several types of waveforms. It can measure various quantities such as peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse-width, delay time, rise time, and fall time. It comprises of a cathode-ray tube CRT , and input circuitry for focusing and amplification. In this graduated the topic of his research is the oscillations of elastic strings. He worked as assistant Professor at Wurzburg University.

What is a CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) & Its Working

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This tutorial will guide you through the basics of using an oscilloscope, it is meant for someone with very little or no experience with electronics or oscilloscopes. There are many types of oscilloscopes out there, and each is a little different, so I'm going to focus on the essential components that are found in all oscilloscopes and are the most useful when getting started. Oscilloscopes are useful for looking at very fast changes in voltage over time, things that we could not measure with a multimeter. Usually when you make a measurement with an oscilloscope, you will see a line that stretches from one side of the screen to the other; this line is actually a graph of voltage vs time fig 2 , where voltage is measured along the y axis and time along the x. Oscilloscopes come in two varieties: analog and digital I'll be using a digital scope in this tutorial. The controls on both types are basically the same; be aware that the digital scopes may hide some of there controls in a menu on the LCD display instead of using knob or button. Basically, it allows you to zoom in and out along the y axis.

Project Mentor: Prof. CRO is a basic instrument employed for the study of several types of waveforms. It can measure various quantities such as peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse-width, delay time, rise time, and fall time. It comprises of a cathode-ray tube CRT , and input circuitry for focusing and amplification. In this graduated the topic of his research is the oscillations of elastic strings.

Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

Essentially a cathode negative electrode is heated and electrons boil off the surface to be attracted by a series of anodes positive electrodes. The deflection system consists of two pairs of parallel plates called X-plates and Y-plates. To display a waveform, a repetitive reversing voltage is applied to the X-plates. This causes the electron beam to be slowly repelled from the left-hand plate and attracted towards the right-hand plate.

Facebook Twitter. It is a very important oscilloscope used to analyse the waveform and measure them. Now here we will discuss how the measurement of waveform i. It is interesting to consider the characteristics of patterns that appear on the screen of a CRT when sinusoidal voltages are simultaneously applied to horizontal and vertical plates. These patterns are called 'Lissajous Patterns'.

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CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO)

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Cathode-ray Oscilloscope and its Applications

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