Research Methods In Applied Settings An Integrated Approach To Design And Analysis Pdf
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Research design is the framework of research methods and techniques chosen by a researcher.
- Historical Research Approaches to the Analysis of Internationalisation
- Quantitative Research Journal Pdf
- Research Design: Definition, Characteristics and Types
Historical Research Approaches to the Analysis of Internationalisation
Historical research methods and approaches can improve understanding of the most appropriate techniques to confront data and test theories in internationalisation research. Examples and applications are shown in these key areas of research with special reference to internationalisation processes. Examination of these methods allows us to see internationalisation processes as a sequenced set of decisions in time and space, path dependent to some extent but subject to managerial discretion.
Internationalisation process research can benefit from the use of historical research methods in analysis of sources, production of time-lines, using comparative evidence across time and space and in the examination of feasible alternative choices.
It would therefore seem obvious that historical research methods, whose primary concern is the role of time, would be at the forefront of the analysis. This is not necessarily the case, as these methods are neglected in internationalisation research, and in international business more generally. Historians face many of the same research problems that business researchers do—notably questions related to the analysis of process—but they have produced different answers, particularly in relation to the nature of causation.
As a field, international business researchers need to question our research approaches more deeply. This paper seeks to examine the types of research approaches from history that might aid in a more rounded analysis of internationalisation.
Issues of sequencing, path dependence, contingent choices and the evaluation of alternatives are all critical in the internationalisation process and are grist to the mill of historical research. An examination of historical research methods leads to a new approach to the concept of internationalisation itself. It is the difference in underlying philosophy between history and social science that presents the keenest challenge in integrating the temporal dimension with international business research.
The contrast between the philosophy underlying history and that of social science—an issue for over a century e. History details the differences among events, whereas the sciences focus on similarities. As an external observer the scientist willingly distorts the individual to make it an instance of the general, but the historian, himself an actor, renounces interest in the general in order to understand the past through the projection of his own experience upon it.
Footnote 1. He suggests that this parallels the distinction between a reductionist view and an ecological approach , p. This also implies continuity over time—the independent variable persists in its causative effect s. It is also connected with assumptions of rationality, which also is assumed to be time-invariant. Compromises are possible.
Causality, interdependence, contingency and moderating variables are more manageable when the time-frame is defined. Research in history therefore demonstrates the importance of time, sequencing and process. It also highlights the role of individuals and their decision making. Footnote 2. How, then, would we recognise if genuinely historical work had been accomplished in internationalisation studies or indeed in any area of the social sciences?
Tilley , p. History matters—the importance of historical effects in international business—is illustrated by Chitu et al. They note that fixed costs need not be large to have persistent effects on the geography of bilateral asset holdings—they need only to be different across countries. The history effect is twice as large for non-dollar bonds as a result of larger sunk costs for US financial investments other than the dollar. Legacy effects loom large in international finance and trade.
It is further argued that attention to these issues leads to a new conception of internationalisation. Reflecting on the purpose of his methods in his book Bloodlands , on Eastern Europe in the period —45, the historian Timothy Snyder , p.
This paper follows similar principles. These are: 1 that the methods of history are appropriate to the study of the internationalisation of firms; 2 that choices and alternatives at given points of time are central to this process; 3 that the role of sequencing and time are central; and 4 that the comparative method is an aid to comprehension of the process of internationalisation.
This paper now examines research methods widely used in history Footnote 3 that have the capability to improve international business research. This followed by a proposed research agenda based on the two key methods of examining change over time and utilising comparative analysis. The use of sources is as prevalent in international business as in history but they are often accepted uncritically. Given that reliability cannot be assumed, source criticism, as Kipping et al.
The trustworthiness of an author may establish a basic level of credibility for each statement, but each element must be separately evaluated. This requires questioning the provenance of the text and its internal reliability Kipping et al. This leads to the important checks brought about by triangulating the evidence.
Triangulation requires the use of at least two independent sources Kipping et al. This principle is utilised in international business journals by the requirement that both elements of a dyadic relationship are needed to cross check each other. Examples include licensor and licensee, both partners in a joint venture, parent and subsidiary in a multinational enterprise. The question of how far these are independent sources also needs careful investigation. Documents or statements addressed to different individuals and institutions may serve a variety of purposes.
Those addressed to powerful individuals, groups or institutions may be intended for gain by the sender. Interviews may be designed to impress the interlocutor. The purpose of the document needs to be explicated. Documents may be designed for prestige, tax minimisation, satisfaction of guarantees by government, sponsors or creditors or to cover deficiencies in performance.
Source criticism includes evaluating what is not present in archives, not just what is. Jones points out that the company archives many analysts require often do not survive—those that involve statutory obligations often do, but those involving high-level decision making, such as Board papers, often do not. The study of intangibles such as the knowledge possessed within a firm, flows of information, and the corporate culture—and how all these things changes over time can involve a very wide range of historical record far removed from documents on strategies… Oral history—of staff employed at all levels—is of special use in examining issues of culture, information flows and systems Jones , p.
These issues—intangible assets, strategy, culture and decision making in the face of imperfect information—are crucial in international business strategy research.
Footnote 4 The selection process may be biased towards particular nations, regions, races, classes, genders, creeds, political groupings or belief systems. The clear implication of these studies is that the colonial era archive was compiled by the colonial British administrators and this presents a largely pro-Imperial bias.
However, it is also true that among the dispossessed voices, some were privileged e. The lineage of subaltern studies leads us through Gramsci to postmodern views of the text: Derrida , Foucault , Barthes There are a number of important techniques in historical research which are useful to international business scholars in examining process, sequence, rhythm and speed—all of which are important in internationalisation.
As Mahoney points out , p. The critical question is not data access, but careful theorising. Sequence and duration arguments attempt to pick up sensitivity to time and place. Process analysis holds out the possibility of integrating the time dimension into the internationalisation of firms.
Events, not variables, are the crucial writ of analysis and capturing multiple time points builds narrative, event studies and panel data analyses. In combination with variance approaches, process analysis has the potential to explain the effects of context place and time in internationalisation.
The critical task is the identification of the linking mechanisms that connect cause and effect. This requires connecting qualitative data evaluation with experimental reasoning. It is also a useful check on spurious statistical relationships Granger and Newbold Easterlin argues that cross-sectional relationships are often taken to indicate causation when they may merely reflect historical experience, i.
This is particularly the case when similar geographic patterns of diffusion are captured by the data—as may well be the case when studying the internationalisation of firms. This may reflect the fact that one set of national firms get an early start whilst others play catch-up. Page , however, shows that path dependence describes a set of models, not a single model. Forms of history dependence can be divided between those where outcomes are history dependent and those in which the equilibria depend on history.
The consequences for process research on internationalisation are profound and require researchers to be as precise as possible, when asserting path dependence, to evidence its roots and specify their impact on future trajectories. Path-dependent sequences raise important theoretical issues and thereby contribute to a further and deeper round of understanding; as with quantitative analysis we need to be constantly attentive to sources of bias Nickell Understanding sequences entails additional complexities.
Brown , p. Two aspects of history are particularly important for historians: propulsion and periodization. The first concerns the forces that promote change. The second involves mental architecture: the chronological framework within which we set out history. Since all periodization presumes a theory of change, these are linked theoretical properties Green , p.
Propulsion and periodization—change and classification—are ultimately constructs and need to be placed both within a theoretical framework and a given context of time and place. This is a challenge to international business research which is often insufficiently theoretical and contextualised.
International business studies need to be sensitive to the period of study. Laidler , p. The past may be the only source of data against which economic hypotheses can be tested or calibrated, but data never speak entirely for themselves. They need to be interpreted through a theory. This suggests that a fundamental problem is that international business research is often inadequately theorised. Theories which stand up to testing in many historical periods are more robust than those that do not.
Jones and Khanna , p. Although it should be noted that many historians are sensitive to the limits of generalisation across historical periods. Such longitudinal studies clearly need rigorous methods from both history and statistics. They use a hazard model of adopting the M-form with imitation and firm covariates that predict adoption rates.
Imitation effects by firms located in the same industry and firms with links to M-form adopters also seemed significant. This approach has also been successfully applied to the birth and death of subsidiaries and foreign market entry strategies Kogut Shaver pointed out that many previous studies had not accounted for endogeneity and were subject to self-selection bias but that such effects could be corrected for using a methodology that factors in the full history of entries, taking account of strategy choice based on firm attributes and industry conditions.
Strategy choice is endogenous and self selected based on these conditions and modelling has to account for this. There are, however, as Kogut points out, several unresolved challenges in the organisational demography literature. First, self-selection bias is still unresolved in that successful firms are more likely to venture abroad.
Quantitative Research Journal Pdf
The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.
Quantitative Research Design Pdf Scientific research exhibits two main methods: a quantitaive and a qualitative method. Virtual university lal pul campus. Report Presented By. Research Methodology PPT Presentation PDF: Generally, research is a search for apprehension and research is also explained as a systematic search and a scientific search for data on a particular topic. Sampson, Jr. A professional practice model is a.
Research Design: Definition, Characteristics and Types
Published on June 19, by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on July 30, Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data e. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research. Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research , which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis.
Every research begins with a clear delineation of the purpose of the investigation as this goes a long way to determine the research process or methodology adopted. In this sense, a researcher may choose to carry out basic research or applied research. Applied research is set on providing answers to specific questions in a bid to provide a solution to a defined problem. In this article, we will outline the features of this method of systematic investigation as well as how it differs from other approaches to research.
All researchers perform these descriptive statistics before beginning any type of data analysis. The research instruments were 8 lesson plans, an.
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