Peace And Conflict Resolution In Nigeria Pdf

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Nigerian history is replete with evidence of multidimensional conflicts escalating into violent crises, some of which can easily be traced to 1 the tensions, feuds, and series of expansionist wars of conquest and jihad by the precolonial communities that were amalgamated into the Nigerian state by the colonialists; 2 the dynamics of colonization and the nationalist activities that culminated into independence by ; 3 the unfortunate pattern of partisan politics during the first republic and subsequent attempts at democratization — and —present ; 4 the protracted military interregnum in politics and governance; 5 human rights violations and abuses; and more recently 6 marginalizations, unhealthy competition, and rivalries leading to self-determination struggles, ethnoreligious violence, communal and chieftaincy conflicts, partisan political violence, resource allocation, and control crises. Others include the shared experience of insecurity and injustices suffered daily by the citizenry as individuals, groups, or communities.

Peacebuilding is the development of constructive personal, group, and political relationships across ethnic, religious, class, national, and racial boundaries. It aims to resolve injustice in nonviolent ways and to transform the structural conditions that generate deadly conflict. Peacebuilding can include conflict prevention; conflict management; conflict resolution and transformation, and post-conflict reconciliation. Peacebuilding becomes strategic when it works over the long run and at all levels of society to establish and sustain relationships among people locally and globally.

Peace and conflict studies

Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of group e. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior.

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PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NIGERIA: AN IMPERATIVE TOOL FOR COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM

Although Nigeria has been spared conflict on the scale experienced by many other African countries, it experiences a mass of relatively minor conflicts. It focuses on the interaction between resource competition and the corruption of the political system, and calls for action in the overall area of conflict prevention. Following independence in , Nigeria experienced thirty years of military dictatorship, during which political and social values were deeply undermined. The country became a democracy in , but so far this has meant an increase, rather than a decrease, in conflict, due to competition for political space. There are conflicts in all areas of the country, and a remarkable continuity in their causes. The Nigerian state is dependent on a single source of revenue, oil, derived mainly from a single area of the country. The concentration of resources in the state makes the possession of political power very lucrative and the competition for political positions intense.

So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies. The paper dwells on the attainment of positive social change through sufficient design and teaching of peace education in Nigeria. The frequent crisis since after independence in the six geopolitical zones of the country presupposes absence of or lack of enough peace education. Ignorance of conflict resolution through dialogue is lacking in the consciousness of many Nigerians due to lack of proper information and training. The incidences of Niger Delta Militia, the kidnapping cases, the community clashes, the politically motivated crisis, the Boko Haram insurgency, among others in Nigeria show little or no peace education. Why Us? Peace education in Nigeria: imperative for conflicts resolution and economic recovery Author:.

Igbo , University of Nigeria - Nsukka Follow. Conflict in simple terms, means a state of disagreement, controversy or opposition. It could also mean the existence of a prolonged battle, struggle or clash between two or more parties. Obegi and Nyamboga , quoting Nicholas described conflict as situations where two people or groups wish to carry out acts which are mutually incompatible. In either case, conflict is generally characterized by a breach of peace or understanding among parties involved. Various dimensions to the causes of conflicts have been identified by writers. Namande , citing Donelson asserts that any factor that creates dissatisfaction can increase the chances of conflicts among people and this may include struggle for resources, egocentrism, ethnocentrism, bigotry, assertion, struggle for recognition, ignorance, pride and fear.

Conflict resolution

Nigeria is a very complex and interesting state. Thus, unsurprisingly, ethno-religious fault lines soon emerged shortly after the country attained independence in , culminating in an unfortunate and possibly preventable civil war that lasted three long years, from , and claimed over a million lives. Since after the Civil War, Nigeria has attempted to build a sense of social cohesion and togetherness amongst its diverse populations. The graduates are often transferred to a region state other than theirs, to boost understanding of other cultures and lived experiences.

Federal Republic of Nigeria: Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA) Report

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 Нет. Только мы трое. Было ужасно жарко. - И вы уверены, что эта женщина - проститутка. - Абсолютно. Такая красивая женщина пошла бы с этим типом, только если бы ей хорошо заплатили. Боже .

И в результате одолел Хейла, освободил Сьюзан и выиграл время для переделки Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика. Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени. Вернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан приступила к линейному поиску. Четвертая попытка тоже не дала результата. - Пока не везет.  - Она вздохнула.

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Он отбросил бесполезный мотоцикл и пустился бежать со всех ног. К несчастью для Беккера, вместо неуклюжего такси Халохот обрел под ногами твердую почву. Спокойно подняв пистолет, он выстрелил. Пуля задела Беккера в бок, когда он уже почти обогнул угол здания. Он почувствовал это лишь после того, как сделал пять или шесть шагов. Сначала это напомнило сокращение мышцы чуть повыше бедра, затем появилось ощущение чего-то влажного и липкого. Увидев кровь, Беккер понял, что ранен.

Беккер остановился. Тупик. Стоя возле креста, он слушал, как приближаются шаги Халохота, смотрел на распятие и проклинал судьбу. Слева послышался звон разбитого стекла. Беккер повернулся и увидел человека в красном одеянии. Тот вскрикнул и испуганно посмотрел на Беккера. Как кот, пойманный с канарейкой в зубах, святой отец вытер губы и безуспешно попытался прикрыть разбившуюся бутылку вина для святого причастия.

Peace education in Nigeria: imperative for conflicts resolution and economic recovery

ГЛАВА 99 Фонтейн время от времени стучал кулаком по ладони другой руки, мерил шагами комнату для заседаний, то и дело посматривая на вращающиеся огни шифровалки. - Отключить. Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке. - Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

А теперь - за работу. ГЛАВА 12 Дэвиду Беккеру приходилось бывать на похоронах и видеть мертвых, но на этот раз его глазам открылось нечто особенно действующее на нервы. Это не был тщательно загримированный покойник в обитом шелком гробу.

 - Мужская комната оказалась закрыта… но я уже ухожу. - Ну и проваливай, пидор.

 С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным. В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано.

Затекшая шея причиняла ему сильную боль. Такая работа была непростой, особенно для человека его комплекции. И они делают их все более и более миниатюрными, - подумал .

 - Не желаете купить. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался во весь голос. Он знал, что это трюк. Корпорация Нуматек сделала очень крупную ставку на новый алгоритм Танкадо, и теперь кто-то из конкурентов пытается выведать ее величину. - У вас есть ключ? - сказал Нуматака с деланным интересом.

Пять тысяч американских долларов.  - Это составляло половину того, что у него было, и раз в десять больше настоящей стоимости кольца. Росио подняла брови.

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    PDF | Since the end of Second World War, rigorous approaches to study of peace and conflict resolution (PCR) emerged across the globe.

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    Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts including social conflicts , with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition.

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