Location And Geo Physical Features Of Pakistan Pdf

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location and geo physical features of pakistan pdf

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The physical features of Pakistan are no similar everywhere. It means that the land of Pakistan is different in various regions from its type. There are chains of high mountains which are covered with snow throughout the year and also fertile lands and green valleys.

Physical Features of Pakistan

Its physical landscapes, political units, and ethnic groups are both wide-ranging and many. South Asia extends south from the main part of the continent to the Indian Ocean. The western boundary is the desert region where Pakistan shares a border with Iran. Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism are the top three religions of South Asia. While Pakistan and Iran are both Islamic republics, each represents a significant branch of that faith; Iran is predominantly Shia, and Pakistan is mostly Sunni.

Religious differences are also evident on the eastern border of the realm, where Bangladesh and India share a border with Myanmar. Bangladesh is mainly a Muslim country, while most in India align themselves with Hinduism. In Myanmar, most follow Buddhist traditions.

Farther north along the Himalayan range, the traditional region of Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan, and China. On the opposite side of the Himalayas are two island countries off the coast of southern India. Maldives comprises almost 1, islands that barely rise above sea level; the highest elevation is merely seven feet, seven inches. Only about two hundred islands in the Maldives are inhabited. South Asia is highly populated, with about one-and-a-half billion people representing a wide range of ethnic and cultural groups.

British colonialism had a significant impact on the realm; its long-term effects include political divisions and conflicts in places such as Kashmir and Sri Lanka. Current globalizing forces are compelling South Asian countries to establish a trade network and institute economic policies among themselves.

South Asia is not one of the three main economic core areas of the world; however, it is emerging to compete in the world marketplace. Some would call India a part of the semiperiphery, which means it is not actually in the core or in the periphery but displays qualities of both. All the same, India remains the dominant country of South Asia and shares either a physical boundary or a marine boundary with all the other countries in the realm.

All countries north of Afghanistan were once part of the former Soviet Union. During the Cold War, the South Asian countries were in the shadow of the superpowers and had to engage in diplomacy to balance their relationships between the Soviet Union and the United States. Communist China is an emerging economic power and has used Tibet as a buffer state with its rival, India.

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has been working to reestablish itself in the global economy. Like India, Russia portrays qualities of the semiperiphery. The United States has had a major impact on the affairs of the South Asian realm, even though it is physically located on the other side of the world. The United States has been at war in neighboring Afghanistan since and has also been a major economic trading partner with the countries of South Asia. Complicating the situation, the United States has developed an extensive trade relationship with neighboring China.

Economic advancements and global trade have catapulted the countries of South Asia onto the world stage. This action started about seventy million years ago and gave rise to the highest mountain ranges in the world.

Most of the South Asian landmass is formed from the land in the original Indian Plate. Pressure from tectonic action against the plates causes the Himalayas to rise in elevation by as much as one to five millimeters per year. Destructive earthquakes and tremors are frequent in this seismically active realm. The great size of the Himalayas has intensely influenced the beliefs and traditions of the people in the realm.

Some of the mountains are considered sacred to certain religions that exist here. Figure 9. Everest in the Himalayas of Northern Nepal. The Himalayas are the highest mountain chain in the world and create a natural border between South Asia and China. The Himalayan Mountains dominate the physical landscape in the northern region of South Asia. Everest is the tallest peak in the world, at 29, feet. Three key rivers cross South Asia, all originating from the Himalayas.

The Indus River , which has been a center of human civilization for thousands of years, starts in Tibet and flows through the center of Pakistan. The Ganges River flows through northern India, creating a core region of the country. The Brahmaputra River flows through Tibet and then enters India from the east, where it meets up with the Ganges in Bangladesh to flow into the Bay of Bengal. While the northern part of this region includes some of the highest elevations in the world, the Maldives in the south has some of the lowest elevations, some barely above sea level.

The coastal regions in southern Bangladesh also have low elevations. When the seasonal reversal of winds called the monsoon Seasonal reversal of wind that is common in parts of Asia.

The summer monsoon is usually associated with high amounts of rainfall. The extensive Thar Desert in western India and parts of Pakistan, on the other hand, does not receive monsoon rains.

In fact, much of southwest Pakistan—a region called Baluchistan —is dry, with desert conditions. The mountains on the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan extend through Kashmir and then meet up with the high ranges of the Himalayas.

The Himalayas create a natural barrier between India and China, with the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan acting as buffer states with Tibet.

Farther south along the east and west coasts of India are shorter mountain ranges called ghats. The Western Ghats reach as high as eight thousand feet, but average around three thousand feet. These ghats are home to an extensive range of biodiversity. The Eastern Ghats are not as high as the Western Ghats, but have similar physical qualities. The ghats provide a habitat for a wide range of animals and are also home to large coffee and tea estates.

The monsoon rains ensure that an average of about fifty-two inches of rain per year falls on the Chota-Nagpur Plateau, which has a tiger reserve and is also a refuge for Asian elephants. A monsoon is a seasonal reversal of winds that is associated with heavy rains. The summer monsoon rains—usually falling between June and September—feed the rivers and streams of South Asia and provide the water needed for agricultural production.

In the summer, the continent heats up, with the Thar Desert fueling the system. The rising hot air creates a vacuum that pulls in warm moist air from the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. This action shifts moisture-laden clouds over the land, where the water is precipitated out in the form of rain.

The monsoon rains bring moisture to South Asia right up to the Himalayas. As moisture-laden clouds rise in elevation in the mountains, the water vapor condenses in the form of rain or snow and feeds the streams and basins that flow into the major rivers, such as the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Indus.

The Western Ghats creates a similar system in the south along the west coast of India. Parts of Bangladesh and eastern India receive as much as six feet of rain during the monsoon season, and some areas experience severe flooding.

The worst-hit places are along the coast of the Bay of Bengal, such as in Bangladesh. There is less danger of flooding in western India and Pakistan, because by the time the rain clouds have moved across India they have lost their moisture.

Desert conditions are evident in the west, near the Pakistan border in the great Thar Desert. On average, fewer than ten inches of rain fall per year in this massive desert.

On the northern rim of the region, the height of the Himalayas restricts the warm moist monsoon air from moving across the mountain range. The Himalayas act as a precipitation barrier and create a strong rain shadow effect for Tibet and Western China. The monsoon is responsible for much of the rainfall in South Asia. By October, the system has run its course and the monsoon season is generally over.

In the winter, the cold, dry air above the Asian continent blows to the south, and the winter monsoon is characterized by cool, dry winds coming from the north. South Asia experiences a dry season during the winter months. A similar pattern of rainy summer season and dry winter season is found in other parts of the world, such as southern China and some of Southeast Asia.

A final note about the monsoons: small parts of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka and southeastern India, experience a rainy winter monsoon as well as a rainy summer monsoon. In their case, the winter monsoon winds that come down from the north have a chance to pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal before depositing it on their shores. The Indian subcontinent has a long history of human occupation, and is an area where cities independently developed and civilization emerged.

This Bronze Age civilization started as a series of small villages that became linked in a wider regional network. Urban centers developed into various religious and trade networks that spanned as far as Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and, perhaps, Egypt. The civilization is known for its planned structures.

It had a system of drains that channeled waste water outside the city. Additionally, this civilization had a homogeneous material culture. Its artifacts of pottery and metallurgy all had a very similar style that was spread over a vast land area, a fact that aided in the recognition of the expanse of the culture. Invasions by outsiders have the potential effect of bringing with them an influx of new ideas, concepts, and technology.

Likewise, the Indus Valley Civilization no doubt had an impact on the region that it encompassed. Little is known of the historical events of earlier times. Some of the evidence we rely on today to discern historical events is gleaned from language, religion, and ethnicity.

Significant to South Asia is the presence of Indo-European languages. It is presumed that these languages were brought to the region by immigrants from the west, where these languages were dominant.

Aryans from Persia and other cultures might have diffused languages such as Hindi to South Asia, which later may have led to Hindi, for example, becoming the lingua franca of the region. The northern plains of South Asia, which extend through the Ganges River valley over to the Indus River valley of present-day Pakistan, were fertile grounds for a number of empires that controlled the region throughout history.

Most of this Iron Age culture is defined by the presence of iron metallurgy and distinctive characteristics of ceramics. The Mauryan Empire existed between and BCE and was one of the most extensive and powerful political and military empires in ancient India. This empire created a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security. One of the greatest emperors in the Mauryan dynasty was Ashoka the Great, who ruled over a long period of peace and prosperity.

Ashoka embraced Buddhism and focused on peace for much of his rule. He created hospitals and schools and renovated major road systems throughout the empire.

Geography of Pakistan

Pakistan is divided into six major physical divisions. The western most parts of the Himalayas fall in Pakistan. The sub-Himalayas — the southernmost ranges — do not rise to great heights — Metres above sea level. The Lesser Himalayas lie to the north of the sub-Himalayas and rise to 1, — 4, They attain snowy heights of more than 4, m. The Karakoram Ranges in the extreme north rise to an average height of 6, m.

Joint Editor. Manager. All communications to beaddressed to the Manager, Pakistan Geographical Review, Of the three, Geography occupies the central position, of temperature and rainfall and their seasonal characteristics. 1 He chose.

Chapter 9: South Asia

Its physical landscapes, political units, and ethnic groups are both wide-ranging and many. South Asia extends south from the main part of the continent to the Indian Ocean. The western boundary is the desert region where Pakistan shares a border with Iran. Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism are the top three religions of South Asia. While Pakistan and Iran are both Islamic republics, each represents a significant branch of that faith; Iran is predominantly Shia, and Pakistan is mostly Sunni.

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Pakistan , populous and multiethnic country of South Asia. Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbours Iran , Afghanistan , and India. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in , Pakistan has been distinguished from its larger southeastern neighbour by its overwhelmingly Muslim population as opposed to the predominance of Hindus in India.

Pakistan Map with Cities, Roads, and Rivers

Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Punjab provinces lie on the north-western corner of the Indian plate while Balochistan and most of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian Plateau. Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide. Pakistan is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest and Iran to the west while China borders the country in the northeast. The nation is geopolitically placed within some of the most controversial regional boundaries which share disputes and have many-a-times escalated military tensions between the nations, e. A narrow strip of Afghanistan territory called the Wakhan Corridor extends between Pakistan and Tajikistan. It carries on south-eastward and ends near the Karakoram Pass.

Pakistan Map and Satellite Image

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