Weathering And Mass Movement Pdf

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weathering and mass movement pdf

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In chapter 5 you read about sink holes, one form of weathering by water and gravity. Sink holes form what is known as Karst Topography , which has the effect of making the landscape appear pockmarked. Karst topography results from the chemical weathering of limestone underground, and the action of gravity forcing the overlying earth to fill in the void.

Geomorphic models of slope development and hydrologic models of runoff generation are reviewed in order to identify the major processes of interest. Slope erosion and mass movement are then classified and typical rates of operation identified. Rates of weathering are also reviewed.

9.2: Mass Movement - Weathering by Gravity and Water

Mass wasting , also known as slope movement or mass movement , is the geomorphic process by which soil , sand , regolith , and rock move downslope typically as a solid , continuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravity , frequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows. Mass wasting occurs on both terrestrial and submarine slopes, and has been observed on Earth , Mars , Venus and Jupiter's moons Io and Ganymede. When the gravitational force acting on a slope exceeds its resisting force, slope failure mass wasting occurs. The slope material's strength and cohesion and the amount of internal friction within the material help maintain the slope's stability and are known collectively as the slope's shear strength. The steepest angle that a cohesionless slope can maintain without losing its stability is known as its angle of repose. When a slope made of loose material possesses this angle, its shear strength counterbalances the force of gravity acting upon it. Mass wasting may occur at a very slow rate, particularly in areas that are very dry or those areas that receive sufficient rainfall such that vegetation has stabilized the surface.

In this section, you will learn the term mass wasting. You will also be exposed to the various types of mass wasting, their causes and their effects. Figure 1. Pieces of rock regularly fall to the base of cliffs to form talus slopes. Rocks that fall to the base of a cliff make a talus slope figure 1. Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide.

Slope Erosion and Mass Movement in Relation to Weathering in Geochemical Cycles

Rockfalls and rockslides. Rockfalls occur when pieces of rock break loose from a steep rock face or cliff. These result from the rock face being undercut by rivers or wave action. Frost wedging may also eventually loosen large blocks, causing them to fall. The accumulation of rock debris at the base of a steep slope is called talus.

Another way material can be moved on the coastline is through mass movement. Mass movement is the downhill movement of sediment that moves because of gravity. There are four different types of mass movement:. Bits of rock fall off the cliff face, usually due to freeze-thaw weathering. Saturated soil soil filled with water flows down a slope. Large blocks of rock slide downhill.

Mass wasting

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9.2: Mass Movement - Weathering by Gravity and Water

Mass wasting is the movement of rock and soil down slope under the influence of gravity. Rock falls, slumps, and debris flows are all examples of mass wasting. Often lubricated by rainfall or agitated by seismic activity, these events may occur very rapidly and move as a flow. Landslide triggers may include:. The runout of a mass wasting event depends on the volume of material, water content, and slope steepness. A Debris Flow is a type of landslide made up of a mixture of water-saturated rock debris and soil with a consistency similar to wet cement.

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Weathering and mass wasting work relentlessly to shape Earth's surface. • The deeply scarred walls of valleys are evidence of their tremendous potential for.

Mass wasting

The crust of the earth is raised or depressed with respect to the geoid by endogene phenomena associated with epeirogeny and orogeny. These large-scale crustal movements come within the province of tectonics and are not considered here. The surface layers of the crust are subject in addition to the action of exogene processes, largely controlled by climate, of which weathering, mass movement and mass transport are the chief. These interact with the endogene processes to produce surface form. Weathering results in most cases in a weakening of a surface zone of the crust, rendering it more susceptible to downward movement under the influence of gravity.

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