Ethnic Issues And National Integration In Pakistan Pdf
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Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Contacto: mohomed.
- Ethnic Politics : An Issue to National Integration ( The Case of Pakistan )
- Dynamics of ethnic conflicts in Pakistan
February 12, in February , Pak Affairs Leave a comment. Federation is a form of government in which power is constitutionally divided among different federating units in such a way that each one exercises responsibility for a particular set of functions and maintains its own institutions to describe these functions. Federalism establishes two sets of government: federal or central authority, and the government of federating units on the basis of mutually-agreed formula of division of power or authority. The mode of political organization unites smaller polities with an overarching political system by distributing power among general and constituent governments on an equal footing.
Ethnic Politics : An Issue to National Integration ( The Case of Pakistan )
The challenge of national integration in Pakistan is as old as the history of this country. Formed on an ideological ground with the religion of Islam as its prime source of identity, Pakistan began to face numerous issues of language and ethnicity in its formative phase. Ethnic nationalism began to be in conflict with religion particularly in the then East Pakistan where language movement emerged as a cogent force challenging those who wanted that the country should be governed according to the ideology of Islam rather than language, ethnicity or place of origin. The Lahore Resolution of March 23, , had called for the establishment of Muslim states in the Muslim majority regions of northwest and northeast. National integration in Pakistan only emerges in times of natural disaster, national dilemma or an external threat. Once the threat is dealt with, the internal contradictions re-appear. Only Mr.
Dynamics of ethnic conflicts in Pakistan
Introduction 2. Major ethnic groups 3. Factor for divergence a Political factors b Economic factors c Ethnic religious dimensions d Trans-national interference e East Pakistan debacle 4. Factors for convergence 5. Institutions ensuring integration 6. Way forward 7. Introduction: Integration literally means the fitting together of parts to make one whole.
Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. According to Harris Mylonas , "Legitimate authority in modern national states is connected to popular rule, to majorities. Nation-building is the process through which these majorities are constructed.
From the secession of East Pakistan to form Bangladesh in to the on-going conflict in Balochistan, the contestation that the country has faced since its independence in indeed suggests that Pakistan has not reached a consensual conception of the nation. The two-nation theory, which postulates that South-Asian Hindus and Muslims cannot live harmoniously in the same state, has provided the main ideological foundation for Pakistani state nationalism, yet it has failed to act as a unifying concept the way it did in the years leading up to Partition. These two works analyse movements that do not identify with Pakistani state nationalism but put forward localized ethnic identities, arguing for cultural recognition in a more inclusive national narrative or struggling for political autonomy.