Chinese Vowels And Consonants Pdf
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- Studies in Chinese Phonology
- The sounds of Chinese and how to teach them
- Learn the Chinese Alphabet from A to Z!
- Vowels in Chinese Plus Consonants Masterclass - Initials and Finals
Studies in Chinese Phonology
The reviewed book represents the first attempt at producing a textbook that systematically describes all major aspects of the sound system of Standard Chinese SC, commonly called Mandarin from the standpoint of contemporary linguistics. Its phonological framework belongs to constraint-based approaches. The volume covers both the segmental level of SC vowels, consonants, syllable structure and the suprasegmentals tone, stress, intonation. It also includes chapters on loanword adaptation, and on variation in SC.
Native English speakers can benefit from numerous comparisons with English sounds. Our review will start with a brief overview of the phonological literature on SC. Then, we shall treat every chapter of the volume separately. Our comments will focus, in particular, on the concerns of practical language teaching the author of this review has some personal experiences in this respect , as Lin establishes the teaching of pronunciation as one of the goals of the book.
In the second part of the review, we will appraise the volume as a whole. We will use the stimuli provided by the book as an inspiration for a discussion on the methodology of teaching SC pronunciation in general. The beginnings of the modern phonological analyses of Mandarin can be looked for in the s.
Literature on Mandarin phonology and phonetics since then has been abundant. Apart from a number of full treatises, there are numerous works touching upon particular topics, or chapters constituting parts of larger works devoted to Mandarin as a whole.
Various analyses of the Mandarin sound system over the years have reflected the general development of phonological theory and a broad range of schools, such as the Prague School structuralism, Bloomfieldian structural linguistics, generative phonology, various forms of non-linear phonology, such as autosegmental phonology, metrical phonology or feature geometry, and constraintbased approaches such as optimality theory etc.
With the arrival of generative phonology the whole field of phonology changed significantly. Many issues of the Mandarin sound system that were not raised before have since attracted attention. The phonological representation of segments was treated by the formulation of rules producing the surface forms from the underlying forms a generative treatment of an earlier date is, for example, C.
Cheng After the advent of non-linear models of phonology in the late s, this field of research received further impetus for SC, see e. Li who uses the concept of feature geometry.
In these models, a stream of speech is represented as multidimensional, not simply as a linear sequence of sound segments. The suprasegmentals became a major point of interest; there were numerous attempts to deal with the suprasegmental phenomena of SC, such as tone, stress or sentence intonation in the framework of autosegmental-metrical models let us mention that autosegmental phonology was inspired by the tonal phonologies of African languages and has proved its usefulness for the analysis of many other languages including Chinese.
New proposals for analysis were made by various constraint-based approaches arriving in the s e. In these approaches, phonetic forms are generated by competing constraints which are ranked.
The rules are viewed as instruments for repairing illicit forms that violate the constraints. Step by step, the numerous works of many authors prepared the ground for a monograph that would reexamine the entire phonology of Mandarin from a new theoretical perspective. Duanmu's The Phonology of Standard Chinese one of the few offering a comprehensive treatment -represents the recent outcome of such efforts. The most recent work of this kind is Lin's volume, The Sounds of Chinese.
To make the picture complete we should mention the vast body of literature resulting from the standardization efforts in the P. Literature related to the propagation of standard language, including a vast number of practical textbooks, is thus invariably based on pinyin.
Quite naturally, these works have their limitations from a broader linguistic perspective, as their goals are specific: codifying, explaining, spreading and teaching standard language. They would hardly be in a position to reflect the advances in phonological theory of recent decades. The textbook status is supported by an attached CD, summaries and exercises that follow each major chapter, a glossary of terms, a list of further reading apart from the references , suggested Internet resources, the tables of the International Phonetic Alphabet and tables listing all SC syllables in pinyin and in IPA transcription.
An index is another feature that has not been left out. In what follows, we shall introduce each chapter individually. Where there is no risk of confusion, we will use pinyin romanization for the representation of particular sounds, sequences of sounds or syllables. They will always by indicated by the use of italics e.
We use pinyin for the sake of convenience. Lin, or other authors mentioned, would, of course, render the underlying representation of such sounds or sequences in a different way. Chapter 1 -IntroductionThe genetic affiliation of Chinese is treated first: the Chinese language family is introduced as a major branch of the Sino-Tibetan family.
The next subchapter sets up the object of description -Standard Chinese, whose phonological system is based on the Beijing dialect. Then, Lin briefly addresses the relationships among the Chinese morpheme, syllable, tone and word. The Chinese character script and the systems of romanization are touched upon. Finally, the disciplines of phonetics and phonology are introduced.
Lin explains the differences between both. The chapter adequately fulfills its introductory function. The subchapter 1. We suggest that the term "logographic writing system" is less adequate than "morphemographic writing system" after all, Lin points out on p.
Chapter 2 -ConsonantsGeneral issues are addressed first. Lin outlines from scratch the fundamentals of articulatory phonetics. The first subchapter dealing with production and classification of consonants p.
Particular places of articulation schematic sagittal cuts are provided and manners of articulation are described. The notion of Voice onset time VOT is introduced, which is important for clarifying the production mechanism of aspirated consonants. It is worth mentioning that the notion of VOT is particularly interesting for native speakers of languages such as Czech, which exhibit a noticeably negative VOT for the voiced stops -i.
After providing a chart of English phonetic consonants, Lin proceeds to the SC consonants p. She discusses their phonetic properties in detail comparisons with English consonants are frequently made. Then she presents the whole inventory of SC phonetic consonants, classified within a standard chart according to the manner and place of articulation.
Afterwards, particular groups of SC consonants, e. The chapter concludes with a table summarizing the inventory of SC consonant phonemes p. It is worth noting that explaining aspiration p. We view such transcription as very advantageous. The reader learns that Lin belongs to those phonologists who do not accept the alveolo-palatals j, q, x in pinyin as an independent phonological row.
She views them as allophones of dentals z, c, s in pinyin , created by palatalization. Duanmu, , offers similar analysis. He treats these consonants as CG combinations, where C refers to phonological dentals z, c, s.
Let us remind the alveolo-palatal consonants are in complementary distribution not only with the dentals, but also with the velars and retroflexes.
Their phonological status has been a topic of discussion for many years. Various solutions were suggested. Some authors view them as allophones of dentals, e. Lin or Duanmu, some authors view them as allophones of velars g, k, h in pinyin , e. Howie, The transcriptions created for the speakers of English, such as Wade-Giles transcription, place them together with the retroflexes zh, ch, sh in pinyin. Finally, many phonologists have them as a separate "palatal" row, e.
Kratochvil, , Pulleyblank, , andalso pinyin. We tend to think that for a synchronic description and for teaching purposes it is more advantageous to give these consonants a separate phonological status, as the dissimilarities in pronunciation and perception between j, q, x and the other three rows are quite noticeable.
The latter solution can be found in many older analyses and invariably in all descriptions based on pinyin, e. Xu, , Cao, However, acceptance of such a pair implies recognition of voicing as a distinctive feature in the system of SC consonants a distinction which is otherwise unneeded.
Chapter 3 -Vowels and GlidesGeneral aspects are addressed first -the production and classification of vowels. Frequent examples from English are given. The chart of American English vowels, followed by the chart of SC surface vowels, is provided p. Then Lin proceeds to glides. She opens the discussion with a basic general introduction to syllable structure.
She refers to glides as non-syllabic vocoids. The next subchapter brings a general introduction to diphthongs p.
The sounds of Chinese and how to teach them
T Problems with vowels In comparing the phonological sys-tems of Chinese and English, Chinese and English differ greatly in the number of vow-els. My own remake of the vowels sounds - inspired by jolly phonics Read the words and point to the pictures emphasizing the vowels sounds Within each of these varieties there are many dialects, and their vowels may also differ greatly. Letter A worksheets are great for guided or independent practice, morning work, centers, and letter of the week A. Way back on our basic education years, we are taught that vowels are the Japanese and Korean have no labiodental consonants Other languages may have distinctions that English lacks.
Learn the Chinese Alphabet from A to Z!
Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs and how to get involved. Authors: Liu Li , Feng Gang. AS ; Sound cs.
Vowels in Chinese Plus Consonants Masterclass - Initials and Finals
The correct name for these pinyin terms is initials and finals. So read on to master Chinese vowels and consonants pronunciation! This is the second chapter in Chinese Pronunciation Mastery. On the face of it, vowels in Chinese differ only slightly from English. A lot of the information below features in the second lesson in our Chinese pronunciation YouTube series.
Learning to speak a new language is exciting; learning to write a new language is even more exciting! It will open new worlds for you. So, dig into these tips and advice for learning how to master the Chinese alphabet easily - at ChineseClass we make it easy, fun and relevant for you! Starting anything from scratch can be challenging, especially if you learn how to write in a language completely different from your own.
EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view. Confirm Cancel. In: Linguistic Models , De Gruyter Mouton Marjorie K.
However, this is a misconception. Each syllable has a tone and each tone changes the semantics of a word.
This article summarizes the phonology the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation of Standard Chinese Standard Mandarin. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. Actual production varies widely among speakers, as they introduce elements of their native varieties although television and radio announcers are chosen for their ability to produce the standard variety. Elements of the sound system include not only the segments — the vowels and consonants — of the language but also the tones that are applied to each syllable. Standard Chinese has four main tones, in addition to a neutral tone used on weak syllables.
Вначале был зарегистрирован нормальный ввод замка, в тот момент, когда она выходила из помещения Третьего узла, однако время следующей команды отпирания показалось Сьюзан странным. Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты. Сьюзан просмотрела все команды. То, что она увидела, привело ее в ужас. С интервалом в три минуты была зарегистрирована вторая серия команд запирания-отпирания.