Vitamins And Minerals List And Functions Pdf
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Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly.
- Vitamins and Minerals
- Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
- A to Z of supplements
- Listing of vitamins
Vitamins and Minerals
Did you ever notice how TV commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals? But when you think of minerals, food isn't the first thing that comes to mind. Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small amounts of some minerals are also in foods — for instance, red meat, such as beef, is a good source of iron.
Just like vitamins , minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.
The two kinds of minerals are: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macro means "large" in Greek and your body needs larger amounts of macrominerals than trace minerals. The macromineral group is made up of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur. A trace of something means that there is only a little of it.
So even though your body needs trace minerals, it needs just a tiny bit of each one. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you can do everything from standing up straight to scoring that winning goal. It also helps build strong, healthy teeth , for chomping on tasty food. The body needs iron to transport oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body.
Your entire body needs oxygen to stay healthy and alive. Iron helps because it's important in the formation of hemoglobin say: HEE-muh-glo-bun , which is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.
Zinc helps your immune system, which is your body's system for fighting off illnesses and infections. It also helps with cell growth and helps heal wounds, such as cuts. When people don't get enough of these important minerals, they can have health problems.
For instance, too little calcium — especially when you're a kid — can lead to weaker bones. Some kids may take mineral supplements, but most kids don't need them if they eat a nutritious diet. So eat those minerals and stay healthy! Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD.
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Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
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A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone.
A to Z of supplements
The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.
Listing of vitamins
The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient.
A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients : minerals , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E : four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
They include:. The best way for your child to get enough vitamins and minerals is by eating a wide variety of foods from the five healthy food groups :. Our bodies absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients better when they come from food, rather than from vitamin and mineral supplements. Vitamin A You get vitamin A from liver, meat, milk, eggs, and orange fruit and vegies like carrots and sweet potatoes. You need vitamin A for eyesight, healthy skin, growth, development and good immune function.
Vitamins and minerals: the basics
Find out the facts about vitamins, minerals and other food supplements, and the role they play in maintaining good health. Learn more about where they come from; how and why they are used as food supplements; which foods they can be found in; and any known adverse effects or precautionary advice. Simply search our A-Z by name or filter the list by type e. Page content last reviewed: March 20, Page content last reviewed: April 28, Page content last reviewed: March 16,
Did you ever notice how TV commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals? But when you think of minerals, food isn't the first thing that comes to mind. Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small amounts of some minerals are also in foods — for instance, red meat, such as beef, is a good source of iron. Just like vitamins , minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.
Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions. Meanwhile, minerals play an important role in growth, bone health, fluid balance and several other processes. This article provides a detailed overview of micronutrients, their functions and implications of excess consumption or deficiency. Your body needs smaller amounts of micronutrients relative to macronutrients.